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Te gebruiken bij
Auteur(s): Henneman, H.G.
Druk/Jaar van uitgave: 7, 2012
Zoek recente samenvattingen & studiehulp
Chapter 1. Introduction to staffing
Staffing is an important organizational function concerned with the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the employees. It is arguably the most import function underlying organizational effectiveness, because “the people make the place”, because labor costs are high organizational costs, and because poor hiring decisions are crucial.
The nature of staffing
The big picture
Physical, human, and financial capital together form an organization. Human capital is the ability, knowledge and skills of people and their motivation to use them successfully on the job. Human capital is equal to ‘workforce quality’. The organization’s workforce is therefore a stock of human capital that it acquires, deploys, and retains in pursuit of organizational outcomes like profits, market share, the satisfaction of customers, and sustainability of the environment. Staffing is the organizational function used to build this workforce through such systems as HR planning, staffing strategy, recruitment, selection, employment and retention.
Today, employees are not just a cost of doing business anymore, employees are valuable and human capital creates competitive advantage. Organizations are increasingly recognizing the value creation that can occur through staffing.
Staffing = the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organization’s effectiveness (Heneman, Judge & Kammeyer, p. 8, 2012).
Implications of definition
Acquire acquisition are activities that govern the initial intake of applicant into the organization. It includes planning which and how much people needed, establishing job requirements in the form of knowledge, skills, ability and other characteristics needed, develop reward systems, develop external recruitment campaigns, using selection tools and make a hiring decision for the person who best fit the job, and finally make a job offer that the applicant hopefully accepts.
Deployment deployment is the settlement of new hires in the actual jobs they will hold, often this is not entirely clear at the time of the hire. Deployment also involves guiding the movement of current employees throughout the organization by internal staffing systems that deal with promotions, transfers, and new project assignments.
Retention retention systems should manage the inevitable flow of employees out of the organization. Outflaws can be involuntary for the employee or they can be voluntary and initiated by the employee. Organizations should try to minimize turnover of valuable employees.
Staffing as a process or system staffing is a process that manages the flow of people into the organization, within the organization, and out of the organization. Organizations use planning, recruitment, selection, decision making, job offer, and retention systems which are interconnected.
Quantity and quality an organization should have enough people to conduct business (quantity) and also people with the right knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics to perform the job effectively (quality). The combination of those two creates a maximally effective staffing system.
Organization effectiveness staffing systems should be viewed in the broader macro context to realize organizational goals like survival, profitability and growth. The micro-activities are the day-to-day operations with its procedural, transactional, and routine in nature. There are many indications of the critical macro role of staffing:
Leadership talent, losing a key leader to a competitor can have enormous impact on other employees and can increase the exit impact.
talents can expand the organization value and protect the organization from competitors.
talent acquisition is essential for organizational growth.
Staffing quantity: levels
Both, the organization in total and the units, forecasts workforce quantity requirements ( the needed head count) and compares these with the forecasted workforce availabilities ( the likely employee head count) to determine its likely staffing level position. The organization will be fully staffed, when the head-count requirements match availabilities. When the requirements exceed the availabilities, the organization is understaffed, and if the availabilities exceed the requirements, the organization is overstaffed.
Staffing quality: person/job match
The goals of the person/job match is to align characteristics of individuals and jobs in ways that will result in desired HR outcomes. In the model, the job has some requirements and rewards related to it. The person has some qualifications (KSAOs) and motivations.
To the extent that the person matches the job, it will likely have a positive impact on HR outcomes like attraction, performance, retention, attendance, satisfaction and other. Job requirements should align with the KSAOs and job rewards with the person’s motivation, this is the matching process.
Several point can be made about the person/job match model:
Each individual must be assessed relative to the job requirements and rewards
There should be a dual match: requirements with KSAOs, and rewards with motivation. The staffing process should focus on both to make a successful long-term hire.
Job requirements should be expressed in terms of both the tasks involved and the KSAOs needed to perform those tasks.
Job requirements often go further than task and KSAO requirements. For example travelling. The staffing process should also consider these matching requirements.
The matching process can provide only so much by way of impacts on the HR outcomes, because the HR outcomes are influenced by external factors.
Staffing quality: person/organization match
A person should not only match the job (requirements and rewards) but also the organization. There are four other matching concerns in the staffing process next to the person/job match: organizational values (norms and desired behaviors), new job duties, multiple jobs, and future jobs. New job duties are tasks that will be added to the job in the future. Hires should be able to perform those tasks in the future. Flexibility issues are also part of the staffing process, in terms of hiring people who can provide multiple tasks. Future jobs refers to forward thinking on part of the organization as to which job assignments the person might assume beyond the initial job. It is about long-term matching. The staffing system should first focus on the person/job match and after that, the person/organization match possibilities can be explored.
In the book the term person/job match is used to refer to both types of matches for simplicity.
Staffing systems components
There are several components that represent steps and activities in the staffing process. The starting point of staffing is the interaction between the applicant and the organization. The initial stage in staffing is the recruitment phase. This consist of identification and attraction activities by both the organization and the applicant like posting advertisements and reading advertisements. The next phase is the selection stage, emphasizing assessment and evaluation through both the organization and the applicant.
The information, self-assessment of KSAOs and motivation is evaluated against the applicant’s understanding of job requirements and rewards to determine whether a good person/job match is likely. The final core component of staffing is employment. This component consists of decision making and final match activities by the organization and applicant. Finally, the organization should decide to which applicant it will make a job offer. When the applicant accepts the job offer the final match is complete a formal employment relationship has developed. On part of the applicant, the employment stage involves self-selection, meaning that the applicant should decide whether or not to continue the staffing process. This decision can occur anywhere in the selection process.
This overall staffing organizations model is the framework for this book. It shows that the mission, goals and objectives of the organization are input for both the organization strategy and HR and staffing strategy. And they interact, once formulated. As a result, staffing policies and programs develop, consisting of support activities and core staffing activities. The staffing levels and quality are the key factors of staffing strategy, policy and programs. Employee retention and staffing system management concerns cut across these support and core staffing activities.
Organization, HR, and Staffing strategy
A strategy is formulated to express an overall purpose or mission and to set up broad goals and objectives helping the organization to reach its mission. These objectives have certain assumptions about the size and types of workforces that will need to be developed, trained, managed, rewarded, and retained. To handle these workforce assumptions there is the HR strategy. This strategy both flows from the organization strategy and also contribute to the organization strategy.
An outgrowth of the organization and HR strategy is the staffing strategy. It is directly concerned with decisions regarding the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the workforce.
Fundamental for the conduct of core staffing activities are the support activities. The support activities consists of legal compliance, planning, and job analysis and rewards. This latter represents the key mechanism by which the organization identifies and establishes the KSAO requirements for jobs, and also the rewards that the job will give. Legal compliance refers to the knowledge of the laws and regulations, especially employment opportunity (eo) and affirmative action (aa), and incorporation of their requirements into all stages of the core staffing activities.
Planning helps to become aware of key external influences on the staffing process, like economic conditions, labor market, and labor unions. It shapes the formulation the staffing levels: requirements and availability.
Core staffing activities
The core staffing activities consists of recruitment, selection, and employment. The emphasis lies on staffing quality to ensure that successful person/ job and person/organization matches will be made.
Staffing and retention system management
The role of staffing and retention system management is to guide, coordinate, control, and evaluate all the different support and core staffing activities.
Staffing strategy involves key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. We can distinguish thirteen different decisions.
Staffing levels decisions
Acquire or develop talent: an organization can focus on acquiring new employees who can “hit the ground running” and be at their highest performance level when they arrive. A development strategy would lead to acquisition of employees who are willing and able to learn the KSAOs: ‘buy or make your talent’.
Hire yourself or outsource: outsourcing hiring activities means that organizations use outside organizations to recruit and select employees. This is because organization belief that the vendor can better identify new job candidates than the organization itself, especially when there is no specific HR function. Or an organization cannot recruit enough employees on its own. And finally it has advantages for legal compliance, since many vendors maintain their own procedures for tracking compliance with equal-opportunity laws.
External or internal hiring: internal hiring is chosen when an organization wants to create a stable and committed workforce. When there is high organization growth or none acceptable internal candidates, organization use external hiring.
Core of flexible workforce: the regular employees consist of the employees working full-time or part-time. The flexible workforce are the employees used on an as-needed or just-in-time basis. Organizations should decide if and to what extent they will make use of flexible employees.
Hire or retain: organizations should strive for an optimal mix of hiring and retention to control the inflow needs (replacing staffing) and the outflow (retention).
National or global: offshoring occurs when an organization sets up its own operation in another country, while outsourcing is moving a business process to another vendor. Outsourcing and offshoring are supported through:
lower trading and immigration barriers
organizations can provide cheaper products due to outsourcing/offshoring.
when organization cannot find sufficient talent in their own country.
Attract or relocate: the basic premise of most staffing strategies is that the organization can induce sufficient numbers of qualified people for employment. It is better to bring the labor to the organization than to bring the organization to the labor.
Overstaff or understaff: most organization try to be fully staffed.
When there are dips in the demand for the organization’s products or services the organization can choose to ride out with overstaffing as a result. Long during labor shortages can confront organization with understaffing or predicted economic downturns.
Short- or long-term focus: optimizing both the short- and long-term staffing needs is difficult, so organizations face a trade-off. When organizations are forced to choose, they will focus on the short-term. Talent management programs help organizations to develop a long-term view of their staffing needs.
Staffing quality decisions:
Person/job or person/organization match: a person/job match will have to be assessed any time a person hired to perform a finite set of tasks. But on the other hand, sometimes a person/job match is infeasible when jobs are poorly defined and fluid. Then organization prefer a person/organization match.
Specific or general KSAOs: an organization facing rapid changes in job content and job creation can better focus on general KSAOs.
Exceptional or acceptable workforce quality: the exceptional strategy allows the organization to stock up on the ‘best and brightest’, hoping at superior performance. The acceptable strategy focus on a less high-powered workforce and less expensive too.
Active or passive diversity: those stimulating an active diversity argue that it is legally and morally appropriate, and that a diverse organization allows the organization to serve the diverse needs of their customers. Those stimulating a more passive diversity strategy argue that it takes time to create a diverse workforce due to the assimilation activities and the substantial planning activities.
Multiple individuals are involved in staffing the organization and thus in the recruitment, selection, and employment activities as well as decision making. Therefore, there should be boundaries on these individuals’ actions and decisions to prevent negative outcomes and decisions. Ethics is about determining moral principles and guidelines for acceptable practice. It emphasizes ‘knowing organizational codes and guidelines and behaving within these boundaries when faced with dilemmas in business or professional work’. Organizational ethics involves the following:
Increase ethical expectations
Legitimize dialogue about ethical issues
Stimulate ethical decision making
Avoid misconduct and provide a basis for enforcement.
Individuals who deal with staffing issues should know and follow their organization’s code of ethics. There are suggestions that can guide a person’s ethical conduct:
- Represent the organization’s interest: the person is serving an agent of the organization and is duty bound to represent the organization first and foremost.
- Beware of conflict of interest: the organization’s interest is placed above one’s own interests or the interest of a third party.
- Remember the job applicant: the HR professional should remember that the applicant is part of the staffing process.
- Staffing policies and procedures should be followed: reminds the HR professional to know and use the staffing policies and procedures.
- Deal with the law: knowing and following the laws and to seek help for the interpretation.
- Consult professional codes of conduct: guides the HR professional toward professional codes of conduct pertaining to staffing and HR.
- Shape effective practice with research results: use research based evidence to guide staffing practice.
- Search for ethics advice: when confronted with ethical issues seek advice.
- Be sure to know an organization’s ethical climate/culture.
Because organizations have different ethical climates and cultures there are two implications for staffing:
An organization can have expectations about how staffing decisions are made.
An organization’s ethics climate may well affect which staffing decisions are made.
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