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    Choice assistance with summaries of Anxiety - Rachman - 3rd edition

    Choice assistance with summaries of Anxiety - Rachman - 3rd edition

    Summaries with Anxiety - Rachman

     

    Booksummaries to be used with the 3rd edition of Anxiety

      Online: summary in chapters

      Print: summaries in chapters by post

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    Content Prints with summaries of Anxiety

    Booksummaries: list of contents for the printed summaries

    • The printed Dutch summary contains the following chapters:
      • Wat is de aard van angst? Chapter 1
      • Wat is de correlatie tussen angst en vermijdingsgedrag? Chapter 2
      • Wat beïnvloedt angst? Chapter 3
      • Wat is de correlatie tussen angst en emotionele verwerking? Chapter 4
      • Wat zijn verschillende theorieën over angst? Chapter 5
      • Wat valt onder fobieën en geconditioneerde angst? Chapter 6
      • Wat is het verschil tussen paniek en angst? Chapter 7
      • Wat houdt agorafobie in? Chapter 8
      • Wat houdt een obsessief-compulsieve stoornis (OCD) in? Chapter 9
      • Hoe om te gaan met angst over de gezondheid en andere stoornissen? Chapter 10
      • Wat houdt sociale angst in? Chapter 11
      • Wat houdt een Gegeneraliseerde angststoornis (GAD) in? Chapter 12
      • Wat houdt een Post-traumatische stress stoornis (PTSD) in? Chapter 13
    • The printed English summary contains the following chapters:
      • What is the nature of fear? - Chapter 1
      • What is the correlation between fear and avoidance behavior? - Chapter 2
      • What affects anxiety? - Chapter 3
      • What is the correlation between fear and emotional processing? - Chapter 4
      • What are different theories about fear? - Chapter 5
      • What is covered by phobias and conditioned anxiety? - Chapter 6
      • What is the difference between panic and fear? - Chapter 7
      • What is agoraphobia? Chapter 8
      • What is an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? - Chapter 9
      • How to deal with anxiety about health and other disorders? - Chapter 10
      • What is social anxiety? - Chapter 11
      • What is a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? - Chapter 12
      • What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? - Chapter 13

    Related summaries & other materials with summaries of Anxiety

    Alternatives: booksummaries & related summaries

    Knowledge & Study pages: summaries per field of study

    What is the nature of fear? - Chapter 1

    What is the nature of fear? - Chapter 1

    Fear is one of the emotions that often causes a person's daily functioning to be influenced. A large group of people suffers from disproportionate fears. This has ensured, among other things, that a lot of research into anxiety has been done and that special clinics have been set up for the treatment of people with anxiety disorders. An example of an implementation of new regulations in response to this increased interest are the NICE guidelines (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) that were introduced in England in 2007. These guidelines cover the national treatment plans for people with an anxiety disorder or depression and state that the most effective treatment is cognitive behavioral therapy. This is the first treatment that is prescribed when people report anxiety symptoms.

    If anxiety disorders are not treated, it can lead to chronic problems. In the treatment of anxiety disorders, anxiety is often seen from a cognitive point of view, because in anxiety any cognitive processes are active. Some of these processes are vigilance, attention, perception, reasoning, and memory.

    Since 1980, the DSM has a separate category for anxiety disorders. Critics state that the effect of including anxiety disorders as a separate category is that all problems related to anxiety are seen as pathological or as a mental disorder.

    What is the definition of anxiety?

    A distinction is made between the term 'fear' and the term 'anxiety'. This is a substantive distinction, but it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the terms from each other. Next to this, fear and anxiety can also occur at the same time.

    Fear (be afraid)

    Fear is the experience of a specific emotional reaction (comparable to a reaction in an emergency situation) after seeing an identifiable object, such as a snake or a spider. It is a very intense reaction that alerts the person immediately. The fear often goes away when the danger has passed. The fear can thus be controlled and can be rational or irrational in nature. The observed source of the fear can be correct, misjudged or correctly estimated but misinterpreted. An intense, irrational fear is also called a phobia .

    Anxiety (fear)

    People with anxiety usually have difficulties identifying the cause of the anxiety, which makes it hard to control the emotion. The occurrence of fear is often unpredictable. It is experienced as if the fear is always in the background and can suddenly start at any moment. Anxiety is a state of constant increased vigilance and not a response to acute distress. Anxiety is also defined as a tension for an event that has yet to come. This event is experienced as threatening, but has no fixed form yet, as is the case with fear.

    People with anxiety are often more difficult to deal with, because the anxiety is experienced as unpredictable and uncontrollable and has a tenacious character.

    It is not easy to make the distinction between fear and anxiety, or to determine when fear turns into anxiety. Usually anxiety comes after fear, but vice versa is also possible. To make things even more difficult, terms such as social phobia and social anxiety are often used for the same psychological problem. And the term anxiety is also used to express the fear when speaking to a large audience, while the reason for the fear is indeed identifiable.

    There are two assumptions about the difference between fear and anxiety. The first assumption is that anxiety can be reduced to fear. The second assumption is that fear can be treated better than anxiety. The idea is that when the cause of anxiety becomes outdated, this can be reduced to fear. Because fear is perceived as better to manage, the reduction of anxiety to fear is often seen as a progressive step in the treatment process.

    An important difference between anxiety and fear is that there are also positive aspects of fear. Some people are eager to get a fear reaction, such as taking part in extreme sports, riding a roller coaster ride, or watching a very scary movie. Although this sense of heightened arousal occurs in both anxiety and fear, the shape of the arousal is different and not fully understood.

    Although there are thus many differences between anxiety and fear, there are also a number of similarities between the two. These similarities are: expectation of danger, anxiety, feeling uneasy, heightened arousal, negative feelings, forward-looking and physical sensations.

    What is the nature of fear?

    Some people do not have the ability or the will to recognize and admit their fears; this can be seen, for example, in soldiers during war, or in men who think their fear is not socially accepted. You don’t have to tell somebody when that person is afraid of something, but anxiety isn’t always noticed by the person him- or herself. This is because the feelings of anxiety are so vague. The person will only notice that he or she has anxiety, when someone else draws his attention to this. The same applies to the outside world: fear is often visible to others through body language and facial expressions. For outsiders, it is harder to observe anxiety.

    Fear has three components that distinguish it from anxiety:

    1. the subjective experience of threat,

    2. physiological reactions to this threat (trembling, sweating, and palpitations),

    3. certain behaviors to avoid the threatening situation or leave as quickly as possible, or to get rid of the feeling of fear.

    Not everyone has to experience these components, for example, some people will have a subjective experience of fear, but they will not shake, and yet other people will not flee or avoid.

    In the development of effective treatments for anxiety, there are a number of problems. For example, one problem is that there is an improvement in the behavior of the person, but that the person does not report any improvement, because the subjective experience of the fear is still present. It is also possible that the physiological reactions have disappeared, but that the person continues to complain about extreme anxiety. The most common sequence of changes in the components of anxiety is first a reduction in the physiological reactions, then an improvement in behavior and finally an improvement in the subjective experience.

    Methods that can be used to measure anxiety are: self-reports, a behavioral approach test, assessments by external observers and physiological measurements. It is best not to rely on one measurement, so that errors in observations can be prevented. It is also possible to take into account factors such as exaggerating the person himself or not being honest when anxiety strikes. People often rate their fear higher in self-reports than in experiments, so only relying on self-reports is not a reliable indication of the possible problem.

    A last important term in fear is the term courage. This is the ability of someone to continue despite the experienced fear and not to flee or avoid the situation.

    What is the correlation between fear and avoidance behavior? - Chapter 2

    What is the correlation between fear and avoidance behavior? - Chapter 2

    What does the two-stage theory of anxiety entail?

    Mowrer is the creator of the two-stage theory of anxiety. He assumes that fear is the decisive causal factor in avoidance behavior and that fear is not only a reaction to a threatening stimulus or situation: it can also energize behavior. Mowrer uses the terms fear and anxiety interchangeably.

    Mowrer's two-stage theory of anxiety claims that:

    1. the reduction of anxiety is a reinforcement (because any behavior that leads to a reduction in fear is stamped in)

    2. fear motivates behavior so that, in the future, the anxiety stimulus will be avoided, which in turn leads to the reduction of anxiety.

    Based on this thought, a new therapy was invented: behaviour therapy.

    What affects anxiety? - Chapter 3

    What affects anxiety? - Chapter 3

    When is vigilance increased?

    Anxious people often have an increased vigilance (hypervigilance) when they are in a new or potentially threatening situation. This increased vigilance manifests itself in scanning the environment in search of a potential threat. When this is found, the full attention of this person is drawn to the possible threat. The information that a person receives is focused on. There are two possible conclusions that can be drawn from this: safe or dangerous. When the person concludes that it's safe, the person will continue with what he or she was doing before noticing the potential threat. When the conclusion is that something is dangerous, however, the person will become anxious and avoid the situation. In some situations people respond to signals that they do not consciously perceive.

    The experience of fear is a natural reaction that people experience in unfamiliar or threatening situations and, in that way, it contributes to the survival of the individual. How is it possible that this natural process gets so out of hand with some people?

    What is the correlation between fear and emotional processing? - Chapter 4

    What is the correlation between fear and emotional processing? - Chapter 4

    What is self-focused attention?

    Self-focused attention refers to the narrowing of the attention. This narrowing of attention, which occurs after detecting a potential threat, can be both internal and external. Internally, attention is focused on physical sensations, such as palpitations or sweating. Having attention for physical sensations is normal, but can become excessive. It is also thought that this excessive attention to internal (physical) signals is the basis for certain abnormal behaviors and events, such as getting a panic attack after misinterpreting a bodily sensation.

    What are different theories about fear? - Chapter 5

    What are different theories about fear? - Chapter 5

    What are the four main approaches to the development of fear?

    1. Learning theories

    The idea behind this theory is that fear is learned, partly through conditioning processes. The idea that fear can be learned goes back to the well-known experiments of Pavlov. The resulting flight or avoidance behaviors persist because they are at least partially successful - fleeing or avoiding reduces the fear, which confirms this successful behavior. In other words, fears are obtained through conditioning and in turn generate flight or avoidance behavior. In the original learning theories, the conclusion was drawn that, through conditioning, every neutral stimulus can be changed into an anxiety stimulus. Supporters of this learning theory have partly changed the original assumption.

    What is covered by phobias and conditioned anxiety? - Chapter 6

    What is covered by phobias and conditioned anxiety? - Chapter 6

    What does the conditioning theory of fear entail?

    According to the conditioning theory, fears are not innate, but are obtained through conditioning. Neutral stimuli can, under certain circumstances, become conditioned anxiety stimuli. The intensity of the anxiety is determined by how often the association between a stimulus and a fear-stopping object occurs and the intensity of the fear or pain experienced. Stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus can also be perceived as scary. These are called secondary conditioned stimuli. An object or situation that arouses fear will at the same time also motivate behavior to reduce anxiety, such as flight or avoidance behavior.

    What is the difference between panic and fear? - Chapter 7

    What is the difference between panic and fear? - Chapter 7

    What is a Panic Disorder?

    Panic is a temporary experience of intense fear that suddenly starts. This fear is usually accompanied by unpleasant bodily reactions, difficulties in reasoning, and the feeling that something terrible is going on. There is a close link between panic and anxiety: fear increases the likelihood of panic, and panic is usually followed by a persistent fear. As a result of a panic reaction, people often develop expectation anxiety: fear of a new panic reaction. Panic reactions occur in almost all anxiety disorders.

    What is agoraphobia? Chapter 8

    What is agoraphobia? Chapter 8

    What are symptoms of agoraphobia?

    The original definition of agoraphobia is the fear and avoidance of public places, but over the years, this definition has become more and more connected to panic disorder. In the past, agoraphobia was mainly seen as a neurosis.

    What is an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? - Chapter 9

    What is an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? - Chapter 9

    What does the DSM state about OCD?

    In the DSM, obsessive compulsive disorders are categorized as anxiety disorders. OCD is one of the most complex forms of anxiety and causes a lot of stress for those who suffer from it, but also for the environment. Most people with OCD suffer from both obsessions and compulsions, but one of the two is usually more dominant. OCDs often occur together with depression, and when these are not treated, the disorder can have a chronic course.

    How to deal with anxiety about health and other disorders? - Chapter 10

    How to deal with anxiety about health and other disorders? - Chapter 10

    What is the Health Anxiety Disorder (HAD)?

    Health Anxiety Disorder (HAD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences intense and persistent anxiety about his or her current and / or future health. According to Salkovskis and Warwick HAD arises after the catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations and symptoms, such as pain, fatigue and dizziness. This is a cognitive view of HAD. The idea that an anxiety disorder occurs because physical symptoms are misinterpreted is also seen in other anxiety disorders, such as in panic disorder, and is not unique to HAD. Consistent to this, people with HAD think that the signals they feel say much more than they actually do. They overestimate their chances of becoming ill and the impact that the disease will have.

    What is social anxiety? - Chapter 11

    What is social anxiety? - Chapter 11

    How is social anxiety defined?

    In short, people with social anxiety experience intense anxiety before a social occasion. Social anxiety develops in adolescence or young adulthood, has a chronic course and is often associated with other mental disorders, especially depression. In literature, the terms social anxiety and social phobia are often used interchangeably. Social phobia is sometimes used to indicate an extreme form of social anxiety, with an intense and persistent fear of social occasions and / or occasions when someone has to perform.

    What is a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? - Chapter 12

    What is a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? - Chapter 12

    How is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) defined?

    GAD is an anxiety disorder in which the person feels more or less anxious for a period of at least 6 months. People usually worry about work, finances, health, relationships and family. This fear is excessive, it is not realistic compared to the possible chance of a negative event. The main characteristic of GAD is a penetrating, persistent and uncontrollable fear or worry.

    What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? - Chapter 13
    Printed summary of Anxiety - Rachman - 3rd edition
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