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    Choice Assistance with summaries of Psychological Science - Gazzaniga - 6th edition

    Choice Assistance with summaries of Psychological Science - Gazzaniga - 6th edition

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    Booksummaries to be used with the 6th edition of Psychological Science

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    • The English printed booksummary contains the following chapters:
      • What is the science of psychology? - Chapter 1
      • Which research methods are used in psychology? - Chapter 2
      • How does biology influence behavior? - Chapter 3
      • What is the difference between conscious and unconscious processes? - Chapter 4
      • How do the processes of perception and sensation work? - Chapter 5
      • How do we learn? - Chapter 6
      • How does the memory work? - Chapter 7
      • What is the psychological view on thinking, language and intelligence? - Chapter 8
      • What is the psychological perspective on human development? - Chapter 9
      • How do emotions and motivations work? - Chapter 10
      • Which factors can influence health and well-being? - Chapter 11
      • What is social psychology? - Chapter 12
      • How does psychology view personality? - Chapter 13
      • What are different psychological disorders? - Chapter 14
      • How are psychological disorders treated? - Chapter 15
    • The Dutch printed booksummary contains the following chapters:
      • Wat houdt de wetenschap 'psychologie' in? - Chapter 1
      • Welke wetenschappelijke methoden worden gebruikt bij onderzoek binnen de psychologie? - Chapter 2
      • Hoe beïnvloedt biologie ons gedrag? - Chapter 3
      • Wat is het bewustzijn? - Chapter 4
      • Wat zijn de processen van sensatie en perceptie? - Chapter 5
      • Hoe leren mensen? - Chapter 6
      • Wat is het geheugen en hoe werkt het? - Chapter 7
      • Wat is er bekend over denken, taal en intelligentie? - Chapter 8
      • Hoe verloopt de menselijke ontwikkeling? - Chapter 9
      • Hoe werken motivatie en emotie? - Chapter 10
      • Welke invloeden zijn er op de gezondheid? - Chapter 11
      • Waar houdt de sociale psychologie zich mee bezig? - Chapter 12
      • Hoe benadert de psychologie persoonlijkheid? - Chapter 13
      • Wat zijn psychologische stoornissen? - Chapter 14
      • Welke behandelingen gebruiken psychologen? - Chapter 15

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    What is the science of psychology? - Chapter 1

    What is the science of psychology? - Chapter 1

    What is psychological science?

    Psychological science is the study of mind, brain and behaviour. Mind is the mental activity, such as thoughts, feelings and perceptions. Mental activity is the result of biological (chemical) processes within the brain. Behaviour describes the totality of observable human (or animal) actions. 

    One of the aims of this textbook is to learn to think more critically. A critical attitude is required towards all kinds of information, especially information that seems logical. Scientists have to learn to be sceptical. Critical thinking involves systematic questioning and evaluation of the information at hand. It is important to ask critical questions and not to take information for granted. Critical thinkers have to look for alternative explanations of behaviour. Critical thinking involves looking for alternative explanations, detecting weak use of evidence and the use of logic. In addition, it is important to be open to new information and to examine whether a study might be influenced by personal or political interests. Also, think whether the used research designs are appropriate.

    What are different types of inaccurate thinking?

    Confirmation bias: people evaluate information that is similar to the beliefs they already had as more positive. At the same time, they underestimate the value of information that is different from their own ideas.

    Seeing relationships that do not exist: it is often assumed that if two things happen at the same time, they should be related to each other; which is not the case. Often it is just a coincidence.

    After-the-fact explanations (hindsight bias): people often come up with explanations for why events happen, also when they have incomplete information. Evidence is reinterpreted in a way that fits better to the outcomes. As a result, existing evidence becomes biased.

    Mental heuristics: heuristics are decision rules that are followed to decrease the effort that it takes to make good decisions. However, using heuristics can also lead to more inaccurate decision making.

    Self-serving bias: People want to feel good about themselves, therefore, they think that they are better than average on a variety of aspects. To support this positive view, people credit personal strengths for successes whereas they blame outside forces for their failures. People also have difficulty recognizing their own weaknesses.

      What are the scientific foundations of psychology?

      Psychology originated in philosophy, in which the great thinkers tried to understand the human nature. In the 19th century, psychology became an independent discipline with different schools of thought that dominated the field for a period of time.

      The nature-nurture debate already started with Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato. The question is whether psychological characteristics are biologically determined or caused by the environment, for example by culture. Culture refers to the attitudes, norms and beliefs that are important within a group of people who share their language. The result of the debate is that there is always an interaction between genes and environment.

      The mind-body problem involves the question whether the mind and the body exist separately from each other or whether the mind is a subjective experience of the brain. Early philosophers thought that the mind and body functioned separately from each other. Leonardo da Vinci was one of the first who attempted to connect mental functions to different brain areas. Around 1600, Descartes introduced another interpretation, which is called dualism. Dualism refers to the idea that the mind functions separately from the body, however, the mind and body are connected. The body was viewed as an organic machine that was led by reflexes. The other way round, many psychological functions, such as memory and imagination would be products of the body. 

      What was the start of experimental psychology?

      In 1879, Wundt established the first psychological laboratory. He is seen as the founding father of experimental psychology. He introduced the principle of mental reaction times that an individual would need for a simple and a complex task. He thought that the difference between the time needed to accomplish a simple and a complex task, would be the time that the mental effort would cost. He wanted to measure conscious experiences as well. This was done by introspection: the study of subjective mental experiences in which (trained) individuals had to describe their thoughts. After some time, introspection was being rejected because it was subjective and not representative.

      Titchener, one of Wundt’s students, used introspection as a foundation for his own new idea, namely, structuralism. This school of thought is based on the idea that conscious experiences can be divided in underlying basic elements. 

      James believed that it was not possible to divide the mind into different elements because the mind is way too complex. According to James, the mind existed of a never ending stream of thoughts that continually changed, called a stream of consciousness. According to James it was more important to examine the functions of the mind. This approach is called functionalism. 

      Darwin presented the evolutionary theory in his book 'On the origin of species'. Darwin reasoned that species change over time. Because some of these changes increase individuals' chances of surviving and reproducing, these changes were passed along to future generations. These changes are called adaptations. He called his mechanism natural selection: the process by which changes that are adaptive are passed along and those that are not adaptive are not passed along. 

      What are the schools of thought?

      In the twentieth century, the ideas of Sigmund Freud became popular. Freud started his career as a neurologist and he worked with people suffering from neurological diseases. He believed that their conditions were caused by psychological factors. He also believed that behaviour was elicited by unconscious mental processes. Freud thought that disorders were caused by the unconscious (mostly sexual) conflicting mental forces. In psychoanalysis, the unconscious is made conscious in order for psychological conflicts to be solved. Solving these conflicts was done with the use of dream interpretation and free association. Free association means that the patient is encouraged to speak freely about everything that pops up in his mind. 

      Watson was the most important founding father of behaviourism and he thought that mental processes should not be studied because they are not directly observable. According to behaviourism, all kinds of behaviour are evoked by the environment (nurture). Every action is a response to a certain stimulus and it can be predicted by the stimulus. Skinner wanted to understand how behavior is shaped or influenced by the events or consequences that follow them. Until 1960, behaviourism was dominant but afterwards the focus shifted again towards mental processes.

      According to the Gestalt theory, the whole is more than the sum of its parts, which also applies to personal experiences. The subjective experience is not just the sum of its different elements, which was thought by structuralists. According to Gestalt, the perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context. 

      Humanists such as Rogers and Maslow emphasize that an individual has to get to know and accept himself in order to reach self-actualisation and to treat psychological disorders. This approach emphasized the basic goodness of people. It focused on how people should work on personal goals and try to live up to their full potential as human beings. 

      Cognitive psychology refers to the study of higher mental functioning, such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory and decision making. From cognitive research, it became clear that thinking influences behaviour. At the same time the computer was introduced. The cognitive psychologists were initially interested in the software (the mind) but around 1980 their interest for the hardware grew. In this time cognitive neuroscience arose, which is focused on the brain and the nervous system as underlying mechanisms of thinking, learning, perception, language and memory.

      What are the latest developments in psychology?

      A lot of progress has been made in understanding brain chemistry. Since the late 1980s, researchers have been able to study the working brain as it performs its vital psychological functions, because of brain imaging methods. Research has made it clear that there is some localization of function. To discover which brain areas are connected and work together in performing tasks, the Human Connectome Project was launched in 2010. 

      Scientists also have made enormous progress in understanding the human genome: the basic genetic code for the human body. Almost all biological and psychological activity is affected by the actions of multiple genes. 

      The evolutionary approach

      According to evolutionary psychology, mental traits are seen as products of natural selection. Functions such as memory, perception and language can be seen as adaptations. Adaptations are facial characteristics, skills or other actions that increase the likelihood of reproduction and survival, therefore, they are inherited to the next generations. There is growing evidence that the brain adapts biologically and that the mind adapts under influence of culture.Through natural selection we received built-in mechanisms that solve adaptive problems from the past. In the past, sweet foods with a lot of calories were scarce. This kind of food had a great survival value and a preference for fatty and sweet foods was adaptive. Nowadays, people still have this preference but it leads to maladaptive behaviour, as it can make people obese. 

      What is the role of culture in providing adaptive solutions?

      Cultural evolution goes much faster than biological evolution. In the last century, great changes have occurred in the way people interact. The flow of people, commodities, and financial instruments among all regions of the world are referred to as globalization. Also the internet has created a new form of culture. According to Nisbett, members of Asian cultures think more holistically than members of Western cultures (that are more individualistic). People from Asia think less analytically compared to people from Europe and North America. This difference might be caused by a different history. The culture in which one is living determines the norms and beliefs someone has. Norms specify which behaviour is expected from the people living in a certain culture. Culture plays an important role in shaping how people view and reason about the world around them. 

      Which different levels of analyses are present in psychological science?

      The social approach looks at how group contexts affect the ways in which people interact and influence each other. The biological level of analysis deals with how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior. The cultural level explores how people's thoughts, feelings and actions are similar or different across cultures. Psychological science emphasizes the importance of examining behavior across multiple levels in an integrated fashion. Often psychologists collaborate with researchers from other scientific fields, such as biology. Collaborations are called interdisciplinary. 

      Psychologists are working in different fields which are described here:

      • Neuroscientists and biologists study the influence of biological systems on mental activity and behaviour.

      • Cognitive psychologists look at how people think, perceive, solve problems, make decisions, use language and learn new skills.

      • Developmental psychologists study the development of individuals during the life-span.

      • Personality psychologists are interested in traits of people and how these traits differ per context. They also look at differences between individuals.

      • Social psychologists try to understand how people are influenced by the presence of others and how people perceive others.

      • Cultural psychologists study how people are influenced by societal norms that belong to a certain culture.

      • Clinical psychologists study factors that might cause psychological difficulties and they search for treatments.

      • Counselling psychologists try to improve daily well-being of people. The difference with the clinical psychologist is that a counselling psychologist is more focused on a difficult situation in which one is currently rather than treating psychological disorders.

      • School psychologists are working in education where they help students with learning difficulties.

      Psychologists are working in other fields too, such as forensic settings or sports. For example, health psychologists are working interdisciplinary and study factors that influence physical health.

      The most important things you need to know

      Psychological Science is the study of mind, brain and behaviour. Mind refers to mental activity, which is a consequence of biological processes in the brain. Amiable skepticism means being open to new findings, but also aware of whether there is scientific supporting evidence. Critical thinking is the ability to question and evaluate information, using evidence. Biases in thinking include ignoring evidence (selective memory) ,accepting after-the-fact explanations, taking mental shortcuts (following heuristics). Movements in psychology include experimental psychology (focused on structure) ,introspection (subjective mental experiences), structuralism (conscious experience in elements) ,functionalism, behaviorism (how environment impacts behaviour) ,humanistic psychology (self-actualization) ,cognitivism (how internal states influence behaviour).

      Which research methods are used in psychology? - Chapter 2

      Which research methods are used in psychology? - Chapter 2

      Psychology is a science. Because they are scientists, psychologists gain accurate knowledge about behaviour and mental processes only by observing the world and measuring aspects of it. This approach is called empiricism. Research always starts with an empirical question, a question which can be answered with data. In general, the what, when and why of a certain phenomenon is being asked.

      The purpose of science is to describe, predict, and explore a situation. The systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena that should provide answers on these questions is called the scientific method.

      The scientific method makes use of three elements: theory, hypothesis and the study itself. A theory is a model of related concepts and ideas that tries to explain observable phenomena and that predicts something. A good theory results in hypothesis which is specific, falsifiable prediction of what should be observed given that both the hypothesis and theory are right. For example, someone who has a social phobia should also have an anxiety disorder. A good theory exists of a variety of falsifiable hypotheses. A good theory is also parsimonious, which is called Occam’s Razor. According to this principle, a simple theory is preferred above a complex theory.

      How does biology influence behavior? - Chapter 3

      How does biology influence behavior? - Chapter 3

      How does the nervous system operate?

      The nervous system is responsible for all kinds of psychological activities. It is a communication network that is the basis of what people feel and think. The nervous system contains billions of nerve cells. These nervous cells are called neurons which function via electrical impulses that communicate with other neurons via chemical signals. Neurons receive information, integrate and transmit it into the nervous system. Neurons communicate selectively with other neurons to form circuits, or neural networks. The nervous system is divided in two parts: the central nervous system (CNS) which contains the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which contains the other nerve cells in the rest of the body.

      What is the difference between conscious and unconscious processes? - Chapter 4

      What is the difference between conscious and unconscious processes? - Chapter 4

      What is consciousness?

      Consciousness is defined as the individual, subjective experience at a certain moment. This experience can be the awareness of the own environment or thoughts. The basis of consciousness has been studied for more than thousand years. Descartes (17th century) stated that consciousness would exist separately from the body (dualism). Nowadays, these two are not thought to be separated anymore. 

      Many different models for consciousness have been proposed. The global workspace model posits that consciousness arises as a function of which brain circuits are active. That is, you experience your brain regions' output as conscious awareness. 

      Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is impairment in mental functioning caused by a blow to or very sharp movement of the head, commonly caused by an accident or a sports injury. TBIs can impair thinking, memory, emotions and personality. TBIs can range from mild to severe.

      Most people who get in coma after an injury or surgery, come out within a few days. Between the vegetative state and the full consciousness state is the minimal consciousness state. In this state people can respond to a limited extent to their environment, for example, they can follow an object with their eyes. The prognosis in this state is much better. 

      Brain death is the irreversible loss of brain function. No activity is found in any region of the brain. When the brain no longer functions, the rest of the body quickly stops functioning. 

      In the locked-in syndrome, you can see all the sights around you and hear every noise, but you cannot respond physically to these sights and noises. 

      How do the processes of perception and sensation work? - Chapter 5

      How do the processes of perception and sensation work? - Chapter 5

      What is sensation?

      Sensation is the process in which senses react to external stimuli or signals in order to carry these to the brain. Perception is the processing, organization and interpretation of sensory signals. This results in an internal representation of the perceived stimulus. How do we integrate parts of an object into  a complete picture in our brain? To explain this, two terms are of importance: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing is determined by the physical features of the stimulus, by perceiving an object. As each sensory aspect is processed, the aspects build up into perception of that stimulus. In top-down processing, higher levels influence the processing of the lower levels, you are looking at something and expectations, context and frame of reference determine how you see an object. 

      Sensory coding is the process in which our senses translate characteristics of a stimulus into patterns of neural impulses. Transduction refers to receptors in the senses that pass along neural impulses in response to physical or chemical stimulation. Physical or chemical stimulation is received by the sensory receptors and carried to the neurons. These neurons send information to the brain in the form of neural impulses. Most of the sensory information goes to the thalamus first (except from olfaction). Here, the information will be send to the cortex where it will be interpreted. The code in which the information is carried can be quantitative or qualitative. A quantitative code reflects the intensity, brightness or loudness of a stimulus. A qualitative code includes the most basic qualities of a stimulus. Different sensory receptors respond to qualitatively different stimuli. A quantitative code consists of a frequency on which the neuron fires. 

      How do we learn? - Chapter 6

      How do we learn? - Chapter 6

      What does learning encompass?

      Learning is a lasting change in behaviour caused by experience. There are three types of learning. Non-associative learning is a reaction to something in the environment. Changing one's behaviour as a result of a stimulus is a form of learning. Associative learning happens when two events that happen close in time become associated by the learner. Observational learning is the change in behaviour that occurs due to observing the behaviour of someone and adapting one's own accordingly.

      How does the memory work? - Chapter 7

      How does the memory work? - Chapter 7

      What is memory?

      Memory is the nervous system's capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge. Encoding is the process in which information is converted into neural impulses. Storage is the process in which a change in the nervous system registers what you just experienced. The neural connections become stronger and new synapses are created. This process is called consolidation, the newly recoded information is stored in the memory. Retrieval is when you remember the information that has been saved and bring it to mind.

      Reconsolidation is a neural process involved in recalling memories and storing them for retrieval. When memories for past events are retrieved, those memories can be affected by current circumstances, so the newly reconsolidated memories may differ from their original versions of what we have experienced. This may explain why our memories for events can change over time. It can also be a viable method for erasing or modifying memories. 

      What is the psychological view on thinking, language and intelligence? - Chapter 8

      What is the psychological view on thinking, language and intelligence? - Chapter 8

      What is thought?

      Cognitive psychology is the study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory and decision making. It studies cognition. Cognition is the mental activity that includes thinking and understandings that result from thinking.

      Cognitive psychology was originally based on two ideas about thinking: 1) knowledge about the world is stored in the brain in representations and 2) thinking is the mental manipulation of these representations. There are two types of representations: analogous and symbolic. Analogical representations are mental representations that have some of the physical characteristics of objects; they are analogous to the objects. Symbolic representations are words or ideas that are abstract, that we cannot represent with an image. Words are symbolic because they do not have a relationship to physical qualities of objects in the world. 

      Grouping things based on shared properties is called categorization. This mental activity reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an efficient way of thinking. A concept is  a category, or class of related items. A concept consists of mental representations of those items. 

      The prototype model of concepts suggests that we tend to associate a category with a prototypical “best example” of that category. This prototype may be the most common member of the category, or maybe a combination of typical attributes. The exemplar model suggests that there is no single best representation of a category, but that a concept is formed by examples of the category. You compare new object with all of the exemplars it resembles, and categorize it.

      Imaging studies have shown that different categories of objects are represented in different regions of the brain based on our perception of those objects. 

      What is the psychological perspective on human development? - Chapter 9

      What is the psychological perspective on human development? - Chapter 9

      What does developmental psychology examine?

      Developmental psychology examines how genes interact with early experiences to make each of us different. Growth and maturation occur at the same times in every person’s life span – in the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Genes seem to set the fixed sequence of the body’s development. Conception is the moment when a sperm penetrates the egg of the female, to create a zygote.This firmly implants at about two weeks later, becoming an embryo. The organs, internal systems, and fundamentals of the body are formed, and at this time, exposure to harmful substances can have lasting effects on the organ systems.

      How do emotions and motivations work? - Chapter 10

      How do emotions and motivations work? - Chapter 10

      What are moods and emotions?

      Moods are diffuse, long-lasting emotional states. Emotions are feelings that involve subjective evaluation, psychological processes, and cognitive beliefs.

      Basic, primary emotions are evolutionarily adaptive and shared across cultures. These include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, and contempt. Secondary emotions are blends of these, like remorse, guilt, submission, shame, and anticipation. The circumplex model of emotion is an emotion wheel in which the emotions are arranged in a circle. Through the circle run two dimensions – valence (how negative or positive the emotion is) and activation (how arousing the emotion is.) Arousal in this case means the degree to which one is physiologically and psychologically active. It has been found that negative and positive affect are actually independent rather than dimensional – we can experience both emotions simultaneously. Positive activation states appear to be associated with an increase in dopamine, whereas negative activation states appear to be assoiated with an increase in norepinephrine. 

      Which factors can influence health and well-being? - Chapter 11

      Which factors can influence health and well-being? - Chapter 11

      What does health psychology entail?

      Health psychology is a field in psychology dedicated to integrating research on health and psychology. In this field, knowledge of psychological principles is applied to promoting health and well-being. Well-being is a state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction.

      The biopsychosocial model of health integrates the effects of biological, behavioural, and social factors on health and illness. Our thoughts and actions affect the environments we choose to interact with, and our environments influence how our biological foundations are expressed.

      Obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, high-fat diets, and certain personality traits all contribute to the leading causes of death. Accidents are one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, due to carelessness. Behaviours like eating habits that are learned in childhood can cause detrimental effects like heart disease later in life. 

      African Americans are still more likely to have a shorter life than Caucasian Americans. One factor that contributes to such disparities is genetic variation. Furthermore, in a country like the United States, where racial biases are still present to prominent, people of some ethnicities may receive better care than others. In developing countries, the standard of healthcare is naturally different than in developed countries. Poorer countries, and thus, their citizens, often do not have access to the resources for adequate healthcare, leading to further disparities. Furthermore, differences in lifestyle also contribute to differences in health.

      What is social psychology? - Chapter 12

      What is social psychology? - Chapter 12

      Why is group identity important?

      Belonging to a group is important for us in a social context. According to social identity theory, we tend to be closely connected to our own in-group, fiercely loyal and even willing to die for what we consider to be our group. Groups to which we belong are in-groups. Groups to which we do not belong are called out-groups. Two conditions are critical for group formation: reciprocity and transitivity. Reciprocity mens that if Person A helps person B, then person B will help person A. Transitivity means that people generally share their friends' opinions of other people. Once people categorize others as ingroup or outgroup members, they treat others accordingly. For instance, due to the outgroup homogeneity effect, people tend to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members. Our group memberships are important to our sense of identity and self. We tend to take part of our self-esteem from our group’s esteem. We are predisposed to be wary of people we consider to be outside our group. This in-group/out-group behaviour begins early in development. We favor in-groups because, evolutionarily speaking, that was an adaptive strategy. This is called ingroup favoritism. 

      How does psychology view personality? - Chapter 13

      How does psychology view personality? - Chapter 13

      What does personality encompass?

      Personality is a person’s general style of interacting with the world and other people. It is what makes one person unique from another. A personality trait is a stable predisposition to behave in a certain way. Traits are personal and consistent, based on the person and not on the situation. 

      Genes, brain structure, and neurochemistry all play a role in determining personality. Like all things, the expression of these biological aspects of personality is influenced by  the environmental influences a person comes in contact with. There is evidence of a genetic root for nearly all personality traits, shown especially in twin studies. Genetic influence accounts for roughly half of the variance of personality traits in individuals.

      Adoption studies have been used to test  the genetic basis of personality by looking at which traits two children with different genes express when raised in the same household. Results have shown that home environment may not be as important as genetics in personality. That being said, some differences may be attributed to differing environmental influences outside the home.

      While research has found a genetic component to a number of personality traits, It has not located many specific genes. Furthermore, genetic expression is influenced by environmental factors. It may be the chance combination of genes that produce individual with unique personality.

      What are different psychological disorders? - Chapter 14

      What are different psychological disorders? - Chapter 14

      What is the science behind psychopathology?

      Psychopathology is the sickness or disorder of the mind, also called a psychological disorder. Etiology includes factors that contribute to the development of a disorder. 

      Psychological disorders will occur at some point in the lives of roughly 50% of the American population. They range in severity, with only 70% of the American population being severely affected.  When a problem is large enough that it causes significant distress and impacts a person’s quality of life over a long period, it can be described as a psychological disorder.

      Behaviour must always be looked at in the context of the situation, in order to determine whether it is disordered or not. What is deviant in some cultures and situations is normal in others. The main criteria to consider are:

      • Does the behaviour deviate from cultural and social norms?
      • Is the behaviour maladaptive?
      • Does the behaviour disrupt work and/or social life?
      • Does the behaviour cause discomfort and concern in others?
      How are psychological disorders treated? - Chapter 15

      How are psychological disorders treated? - Chapter 15

      Psychotherapy is the generic name given to formal psychological treatment. The relationship between the therapist and the client is supremely important, as the client must both want and expect to receive help. Biological therapies reflect medical approaches to disease and illness. 

      What is psychodynamic therapy?

      Psychodynamic therapy is based on the work of Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer, developed with the goal of reducing the client’s inhibitions and uncovering unconscious thoughts and feelings. Some techniques include dream analysis and free association. The goal is insight – the ability to uncover unconscious mental conflicts that might be underlying the psychological issue. A new approach consists of offering fewer sessions and focusing more on current relationships than on early childhood experiences. 

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