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Summary: International Business Law
Te gebruiken bij
Auteur(s): August, Mayer and Bixby
Druk/Jaar van uitgave: 6e/2012
Remarks & Related
Contains chapter 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11
Zoek recente samenvattingen & studiehulp
Chapter 1: Introduction to International and Comparative Law
1.1: What is international Law?
International law: The body of legal rules and norms that regulates activities carried on beyond the legal boundaries of a single state.
International law deals with 3 kinds of relationships:
Between states and states
Between states and persons
Between persons and persons (private international law)
Traditionally, international law was about the relationships between states: Public international law: The part of international law that deals with issues between two or more states, and the legal relationships between and among states.
Since transactions among private entities grew, private international law was applied:
Private international law: The part of international law that deals primarily with the rights and duties of individuals and nongovernmental organizations in their international affairs.
(Examples of public and private law are shown in Table 1.1 p.22)
3 ways to look at international law:
Cosmopolitans: international law based on universal human rights, should restrain states from violating norms based on universal human rights, consent of state is irrelevant.
Positivists: focus on sovereignty of states. International law based on: (1)sovereign equality of all states in the international system (2) state consent to individual international law, either through treaties or customs. Positivist international law can be seen as a series of contracts between states. International law only becomes binding through explicit or implicit contracts.
Hobbesians: In contrast to the before mentioned, Hobbesians are more cynical. They believe that states will make agreements and abide by international law only when it suits their self-interests.
Comity: The practice or courtesy existing between states of treating each other with goodwill and civility.
Comity is understood as an informal principle that nations will extend certain courtesies to other nations, particularly by recognizing the validity and effect of their executive, legislative and judicial acts.
(In case 1-1, p. 23, the limits on a state’s jurisdiction to make and enforce law are discussed in terms of doctrine of comity)
Under the doctrine known as comity, a court should decline to exercise jurisdiction under certain circumstances in deference to the laws and interest of another country.
State’s territorial basis for taking jurisdiction: if a business incorporated in one state operates a manufacturing facility in another state and violates the law of the other state, the other state will have the well-recognized power under customary international law to hear and decide a case against the foreign defendant.
Nationality jurisdiction: e.g. U.S. companies do certain acts in other states, they may still be held accountable in U.S. courts.
Factors relevant to evaluating whether the exercise of jurisdiction is reasonable:
The extent to which the activity takes place within the territory, or has a substantial direct effect upon the territory of the regulating state
The connection between the regulating state and the person principally responsible for the activity (such as nationality, residence, or economic activity)
The character of the activity to be regulated
The existence of justified expectations that might be protected or hurt by the regulation
The importance of regulation to the international political, legal or economic system
The likelihood of conflict with regulation by another state.
Having one forum where all international civil cases could be resolved would eliminate the need for such balancing under the guise of reasonableness.
1.2: The making of International Law
Within states, law is made by legislatures, courts and other agencies of government. At the international level, no formal lawmaking machinery exists. Different states have to work together to function in the roles of both lobbyists and legislators.
Under Positivist principles, international law comes into effect only when states consent to it. The general consent of the international community can be found in state practice.
State practice: the conduct and practices of states in their dealings with each other.
Statements or evidence of general consent can be found in the decision of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in resolutions passed by the General Assembly of the UN, in lawmaking multilateral treaties and in the conclusions of international conferences.
Multilateral treaties: treaty between more than two states.
Sometimes, when a provision is repeated over and over in bilateral treaties (= formal binding between 2 states), courts and law writers will regard the provision as having the general consent of the international community. In addition, legal writers often cite ungratified treaties and reports of international agencies, such as those of the International Law Commission, as indicating trend toward general consent.
1.3 Sources of Int. Law
The sources of international law are what courts and other international tribunals rely on to determine the content of international law. Article 38(1) of the Statute of the ICJ lists the sources that the court is permitted to use:
International conventions, whether general or particular, establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting states
International custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law
The general principles of law recognized by civilized nations
Subject to the provision of Article 59, judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations, as a subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law.
This listing implies a hierarchy, an order in which these sources are to be relied on (see fig. 1.1., p. 26)
Treaty: legally binding agreement between two or more states
Conventions: legally binding agreement between states sponsored by international organizations, such as the United Nations.
Both are binding upon states because of a shared sense of commitment and because one state fears that if it does not respect its promises, other states will nor respect their promises.
Most of the customary rules that once governed treaties are contained in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties(1980). Article 2(1)(a) of the Vienna Convention states that ‘Treaty’ means an international agreement concluded between states in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation. This definition excludes certain agreements, such as oral promises, unilateral promises, agreements relating to international organizations, agreements governed by municipal law, and agreements that were clearly not intended to create a legal relationship.
Custom: a long-established tradition or usage that becomes customary law if it is (1) consistently and regularly observed and (2) recognized by those states observing it as a practice that they must obligatorily follow.
International customary law, however, is hardly static because certain practices were one followed in the international community does not mean that they are still followed today.
To show that a customary practice has become customary law, two elements must be established – one behavioural and one psychological.
Usus: a consistent and recurring practice. Evidence of such action can be found in the official statements of governments (including diplomatic correspondence, policy statements and press releases, the opinions of legal advisors, executive decrees, orders to military or naval forces, comments on draft treaties, national court decisions and even legislation of a subordinate government).
States observing the custom must regard it as binding. Opinio juris sive necessitatis: Maxim requiring a state to observe a customary practice only if it is one that international law requires the state to observe.
Even if the international community follows a practice and recognizes it as binding customary law, under some circumstances the rule will not apply to a particular state. This happens when a state persistently objects to a practice during its formative stages and thus never becomes a party to it.
Persistent objection: Active rejection of a customary practice from its first observance by other states.
This can also happen after a customary rule has become generally accepted, if a state is allowed by the international community to deviate from the general practice.
When courts are required to decide international disputes, they frequently rely on the general principles.
General principles: Principles of law common to the world’s legal systems.
There are only 2 highly influential legal systems for international law: Anglo-American common law system and the Romano-Germanic civil law system. The similarities of these systems provides courts with the general principles they can use.
ARTICLE 53 (Vienna Convention, 1986)
Treaties conflicting with a Peremptory norm of general international law (Jus Cogens)
A treaty is void if, at the time of its conclusion, it conflicts with a peremptory norm of general international law. For the purposes of the present Convention, a peremptory norm of general international law is a norm accepted and recognized by the international community of States as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted and which can be modified only by a subsequent norm of general international law having the same character.
Jus cogens: A peremptory norm of general international law, recognized by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
Jus cogens was developed under strong influence of natural law concepts. Natural law is the school of legal thought that emphasizes the need for statutes and constitutional laws to be based on universal principles.
At the same time, however, the contractual, consensual emphasis for international law is early seen in Article 38(1) of the Statute of ICJ. Article 38(1) lists conventions, customary general practice, and general principles of law. In the case of conventions, Article 38(1) requires their express recognition by the contesting states, it holds that customary general practice should be “accepted as law”. Moreover, the general principles of law should be “recognised” by civilized nations.
1.4: The Scope of Int. Law in practice
International tribunals generally regard municipal law as subservient to international law.
Subservient: subordinate in capacity or function.
It is a generally accepted principle of international law that in the relation between states who are contracting parties to a treaty, the provisions of their municipal (=domestic) law cannot prevail over those of the treaty.
Not only do international tribunals treat international law as the superior law, but they also regard states as having a general obligation to bring their municipal law into compliance with international norms.
If a municipal court determines that a certain rule of international law could apply in a particular case, the major question for the court is whether the international law has been “received” into the local jurisprudence. How the court will answer this question depends on whether the law is based on customary practice or is contained in a treaty.
In most countries, customary law is received in accordance with the doctrine of incorporation.
Doctrine of incorporation: Customary international law is part of domestic law to the extent that it is not inconsistent.
A minority of courts apply the doctrine of transformation.
Doctrine of transformation: Customary international law is applicable domestically only after it is adopted by legislation, court decision, or local usage.
The reception rules found in treaties depend on two factors:
The nature of the treaty: Treaties may be either self-executing or non-self-executing. Self-executing treaty: A treaty containing a term that says that it is directly effective within the signatory states upon ratification.
Non-self-executing treaty: A treaty that requires state parties to enact enabling legislation before it becomes effective domestically.
The constitutional structure of the ratifying state: Two kind of treaties:
Constitutional treaties: treaties adopted according to the constitutional provision of the ratifying state.
Executive agreements: treaties or international agreements entered into by a state’s executive without following the state’s constitutionally required ratification procedure.
Executive agreements and constitutional treaties that are non-self-executing are not effective domestically. To obtain effect, implementing legislation must be adopted.
1.5: International Persons
The personalities of international law are states (and their subdivisions), international organizations, businesses, and individuals.
State: A political entity comprising a territory, a population, a government capable of entering into international relations, and a government capable of controlling its territory and peoples.
There are three kinds of states:
Independent state: A state that is sovereign; one that operates independently internationally (free from political control and free to engage in agreements with other international persons)
Dependent state: A state that has surrendered its rights to conduct international affairs to another state. Dependencies of the US include Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and various other islands located in the Pacific Ocean.
Inchoate state: Begun, but not completed; imperfectly formed or developed. E.g. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the U.S., administered by the Office of Insular Affairs. Persons born in American Samoa are U.S. nationals, but not U.S. citizens.
The concept of a ‘failed state’: where warring factions have long competed for control over substantial parts of state that were formally controlled by a central government (Map 1.3, p. 33) . When no one is ‘in control’ over a state’s territory the question of recognizing a government comes to fore. A formal definition of recognition posits that for a state to exist in the international community, it must be recognized by other states.
Recognition: Formal acknowledgement or acceptance by a government of the independence and sovereignty of a newly created state or a newly established government in another state, especially one established by revolution.
Once recognition is given, it implies that the recognized state or government is entitled to the rights and privileges granted by international law. Recognition of a government is different from a state!
Two theories as guidelines for when a government should be recognized:
Declaratory doctrine: the legal existence of a state or government happens automatically by operation of law.
Constitutive doctrine: the legal existence of a state or government is dependent on recognition by other states.
It is important for a government to be recognized, because recognition implies that the recognizing government wishes to have normal relations. And recognized governments are entitled, among other things, to diplomatic protection and sovereign immunity.
In 1931, Mexico’s Foreign Relations Secretary Genaro Estrada developed another important facet for non-intervention: Estrada doctrine: Doctrine that foreign governments will not be explicitly recognized. His objective was to remain neutral in foreign controversies by rejecting the usual practice of states, namely ‘’recognizing’’ foreign governments. Mexico proclaimed that it would not judge or support any particular political actor in a foreign country (remains neutral)
For a state to exist, it must have territorial sovereignty. This right may not be absolute, other states may obtain servitudes, either by treaty or practice.
Territorial sovereignty: The right of a government to exclusively exercise its power within a particular territory.
Servitude: A right to use of another’s property. May also be negative, they may prevent one state from doing something within its territory that causes injury to a second state. Servitudes can also be negative..
Article X of the Helsinki rules adopted by the International Law Association:
A state must prevent any new form of water pollution or any increase in the degree of existing water pollution in an international drainage basin which would cause substantial injury in the territory of a co-basin State.
A state should take all reasonable measures to abate existing water pollution in an international drainage basin to such an extent that no substantial damage is caused in the territory of a co-basin State.
Water pollution:any detrimental change resulting from human conduct in the natural composition, content, or quality of waters.
To have territorial sovereignty, a state must first acquire territory. Is done is several ways:
By the occupation of land not claimed by another sovereign
By the voluntary transfer of territory from one sovereign to another
By the conquest and continued occupation of the territory of another sovereign
Once territory is acquired, a state’s title is affirmed either by the formal recognition of other states or by a process of estoppel.
Estoppel: Legal rule that one cannot make an allegation or denial of fact that is contrary to one’s previous actions or words. It arises when a state fails to speak up and object to another’s exercise of sovereignty when it would be reasonable to do so.
When there is a change in sovereignty over territory, several legal consequences arise. Successor states must observe treaties that implement general rules of international law, and they are bound by dispositive treaties.
Dispositive treaties: A treaty concerned with rights over territory, such as boundaries and servitudes.
The obligation of a successor state to observe other treaty commitments depends on how it acquires a territory:
Merger rule: Legal rule that the treaties in effect in a former state remain in effect in its territory when it becomes part of a new state.This rule presumes that when two states merge to form a new state, the pre-existing treaties remain in force in the territories where they previously applied.
The new successor state and other states that are parties to a treaty with one of the predecessor states can agree to either terminate the treaty or extend it to the whole territory of the new state.
A treaty will terminate if its object and purpose can no longer be accomplished or if the conditions necessary to accomplish its object and purpose have radically changed.
Moving boundaries rule: Legal rule that the treaties of a state absorbing new territory become effective within the absorbed territory. ( If territory from one state shifts to another).
Clean State doctrine: Doctrine that a new state coming into existence through decolonization is under no obligation to succeed to the treaties of its former colonial power.
When two states come into existence following the disintegration of a predecessor, the Clean State doctrine does not apply. According to Article 34 of the Vienna Convention on the Succession of States in Respect of Treaties, both are bound by the predecessor’s treaties to the extent that they are applicable within each of the territories. (e.g. when Soviet Union broke up into 12 republics)
Succession of States: occurs when (1) two states agree to join and form a single state or (2) a state dissolves and its constituent states assume the role of independent states. Disputes between two sovereign states over state succession are not matter for municipal courts to decide.
Public property located within a territory becomes the property of the successor state, while property located in a third state belongs to whichever government the third state recognizes. If a third state recognizes both states, however, the property will generally belong to whichever state is in actual possession.
The private property rights of individuals do not lapse because of a change in government.
According to the UN Charter, there are two kinds of international organizations:
Public or intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
Private or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
Intergovernmental organization: A permanent organization set up by two or more states to carry on activities of common interest. It aims and objectives, internal structure, resources, and express powers are set out in a “constituent instrument” or charter.
Charter: A document outlining the principles, functions, and organization of a juridical entity.
For an IGO to have the legal capacity to deal with other international persons, it must be recognized. Generally, by becoming a member of an IGO, a state automatically recognizes the IGO’s international personality (not in UK).
Legal capacity: Qualification or authority, such as the qualification or authority to carry on international relations.
The most important IGO is the United Nations (25 Oct. 1945) (see fig. 1.2, 0. 41).
The organs (= agency that carries on a specific functions within a larger organisation) of the UN are:
The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of the UN, it is a quasi-legislative body made up of representatives of all member states (193). It function is to discuss and vote on any question/matter within the scope of the charter.
Security Council is made up of representatives of 15 member states, 5 are permanent (US, China, Russia, France, UK). It is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. Only UN organ with the authority to use armed force. Rule of “great Power unanimity or veto power: decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members.
Secretariat is the administrative arm of the UN, responsible for making reports and recommendation to the General Assembly and Security Council.
International Court of Justice is UN principal judicial body.
Trusteeship Council has no longer a function.
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is responsible for promoting economic, social, health, cultural, and educational progress as well as respect for human rights.
The United Nations System is a group of autonomous organizations affiliated with the UN. These specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the UN and each other through the coordination machinery of the ECOSOC at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board (CEB) for coordination at the inter-secretariat level (see table 1.2, p. 43). The WTO and Atomic Energy Agency have similar relationships with the UN (although they are not specialized agencies).
During the past 15 years, the UN has tried to engage the business community in partnering for a better world. Indeed, a very large number of companies collaborate to some degree or another with the UN. (UN suggest a number of ways that businesses can serve as partners) the UN has sponsored a Global Compact for businesses to join in support of the Millennium Development Goals, see bottom of p.43 ‘Partnering with the UN’.
European Union (EU) (1951): An IGO that has as its goals the elimination of internal frontiers and the establishment of a political, economic, and monetary union.
Unlike the most IGO’s, the EU is endowed with supranational powers.
Supranational powers: powers surrendered by member states to an IGO. Such powers are superior to and pre-empt the laws and regulations of its member states. In exercising these powers, the organization may grant rights and privileges to the national of its member states, which those individuals may directly invoke.
This “supremacy principle” has two consequences:
The member states are required to bring their internal laws into compliance with EU law
EU law is directly effective within member states.
Main institutions of EU:
Council of the EU and the European Council
Other important bodies: European Court of Justice, European Central Bank, European Economic and Social Committee, Court of Auditors, and European Investment Bank.
Council of the European Union: Representative of the member state governments and the co-legislative body (with Parliament) of the EU. It is the main decision-making body of EU
It is s made up of ministers, 1 from each member. Its role is to:
Adopt legislation in conjunction with the Parliament
Adopt an annual budget, also in conjunction with the Parliament
Adopt international agreements
Coordinate the economic policies of the member states.
European Council acts as the principal initiator of overall policy for the EU. It focuses on establishing general policies and goals for the EU, deals with urgent foreign policy issues through the common foreign and security policy.
European Commission: The administrative and executive arm of the EU. It represents the EU internationally. The tasks of the commission are to:
Ensure that EU rules are respected (can impose fines and take states to European Court of Justice)
Propose the European Council measures likely to advance the development of EU policies
Implement EU policies
Manage the funds that make up most of the EU budget
European Parliament: The co-legislative body (with the Council of the EU) and the main supervisory institution of the EU. Three main roles:
Oversight authority over all EU institutions
Shares legislative power with the Council of the EU
Determines the EU’s annual budget in conjunction with the Council of the EU.
European Court of Justice = Supreme tribunal of the EU. Full court is in a Grand Chamber of 13 judges. Otherwise in Chambers of three or five judges. The full court will sit in “plenary sessions” for “contentious cases”. It hears 4 kinds of contentious cases:
Appeals from the Court of First Instance
Complaints brought by the commission or by one member state against another member state for failure of the latter to meet its obligations under EU law.
Complaint brought by a member state against an EU institution or its servants for failing to act or for injuries they may have caused
Actions brought by a member state, the council, the commission, or Parliament seeking the annulment of an EU legal measure.
Economic and Social Committee: An EU consultative body made up of special-interests groups.
Court of First Instance:The EU’s trial court with jurisdiction over (1) disputes brought by private persons against EU institution and (2) employment disputes between EU institutions and their employees.
European Central Bank is responsible for carrying out the EU’s monetary policy.
European Court of Auditors: The institution responsible for supervising the EU’s budget.
(Other IGOs) IGOs can be categorized into two basic groups:
General IGOs that have competence in a wide variety of fields, including politics, security, culture and economics (like UN)
Specialized IGOs that limit their activities to a particular field.
One important group of specialized IGOs promotes economic cooperation and development. This group is made up of several types of organizations, the most developed of which are the common market or customs unions, such as the EU.
Custom unions: A group of states that have reduced or eliminated trade barriers among themselves and have established a common external tariff. (see table 1.4, p. 60 for the customs unions in the developing world)
The success of custom unions has been limited for several reasons:
The economies of member states tend to compete with, rather than complement each other.
Many of the member states only recently gained independence, they are reluctant to surrender that independence to a central authority.
Economic gains made within these unions have often been unequal, prompting those states that have not shared fully t become discouraged and withdraw.
Free trade area (FTA): A second type of cooperative economic IGO. A group of states that have reduced or eliminated trade barriers among themselves but maintain their individual tariffs in dealing with other states. Examples include the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Area (ASEAN-FTA), the Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA), the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Economic consultative association: (A third type of IGO involved in economic cooperation and development.) A group of states that exchanges information, coordinates economic policy, and promotes trade cooperation. (e.g. OECD and OPEC)
Nongovernmental organization (NGO): An international organization made up of organizations other than states. Includes non-profit and for-profit NGOs.
Non-profit NGOs: An international organization that draws its members from among individuals and domestic organisations (sometimes including local governments, such as municipalities) who reside in two or more states. (e.g. Amnesty International).
For-profit NGOs (or transnational corporations): multinational enterprises (MNEs).
MNEs have acquired the authority to enter into international agreements with states and to sue states in at least one international tribunal. The right to sue a state is granted in the ‘’Convention on the Settlement of International Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States’’ (1965).
This convention is meant to encourage investment in developing countries. To do this, it allows MNEs to enter into agreements with developing countries and it requires both the MNEs and the countries to resolve any disputes about their agreements using a mandatory mechanism of conciliation and arbitration.
Arbitration: The process by which parties to a dispute submit their differences to the judgment of an impartial third person or group selected by mutual consent.
1. 6: The Rights of Individuals under International Law
International law looks upon individuals in two different ways: (1) ignores them, or (2) treats them as its subjects. The traditional view was to ignore them. Some writers still believe that this is the only proper way for international law to treat individuals (see p. 62 for example).
The traditional law concept that allows a state to seek compensation from other states for injuries done to its nationals is known as the law of state responsibility. State responsibility: Liability of a state for the injuries that it causes to foreign persons.
Second way, wherein individuals are treated as subjects and wherein individuals have Human rights (= Basic rights intended to protect all people from cruel and inhumane treatment, threats to their lives, and persecution.) (See table 1.5, p.63 for a comparison of the law of state responsibility and international human rights law)
1.7: Comparison of Municipal Legal Systems
Whereas international law governs relations between states, institutions, and individuals across national boundaries, municipal (=domestic) law governs these same person within the boundaries of a particular state. (see map 1.9, p. 66 for the world’s legal systems)
Comparative law: Study, analysis and comparison of the world’s municipal law systems.
Comparative lawyers classify countries into legal families:
Romano-Germanic civil law
Anglo-American common law
Romano-Germanic civil law system is the oldest and most influential legal family, commonly called civil law. Civil law: (1) The legal system derived from Roman and Germanic practice and set out in national law codes. (2) As distinguished from public law, the body of law dealing with the rights of private citizens.
Corpus Juris Civilis (‘’body of civil law’’): Codification of Roman law completed about 534 A.D. at the order of Emperor Justinian that selected, arranged, and condensed the ancient laws.
Glossator: one who makes a textual gloss or glossary (i.e. a brief note or explanation in the margins or between lines of a text as to the meaning of a difficult obscure word or expression).
Commentator: One who provides a systematic series of explanations or interpretations
Jus commune: Law based on Roman law, canon law, and the interpretations of glossators and commentators, and common to Europe at the beginning of the Renaissance.
Two national codes have been such widespread and lasting influences that they are no regarded as the basis of the modern civil law:
French Civil Law: Law code promulgated in 1804 by Napoleon that collected, arranged, and simplified French law.
German Civil Law: Law code promulgated in 1896 that is based on the Corpus Juris Civilis and is characterized by its detailed structure and its technical precision. Pandectists: scholars who attempted to prepare a pandect, or complete and comprehensive treatise or digest of the law, concentrate on the test of the Corpus Juris Civilis, with the aim of discovering its underlying principles and organization.
Although the French and German codes are different in style and tone, they are more similar than dissimilar. Both are based on the jus commune, in particular in their approach to the law of obligations and in their structure. They also rely on many of the same political and philosophical ideals, notable laissez-faire economics and the autonomous rights of individuals.
Separate from the codification of civil or private law was the development of public law.
Public law: constitutional and administrative law. It is not involved in the civil law codes.
The Anglo-American Common law system, generally called common law.
Common law:The legal system of England and countries that were once English colonies. It is based primarily on court-made rules or precedent.
A fundamental doctrine of the common law: Supremacy of the law: doctrine that all persons, including the sovereign, are subordinate to the rule of law. Common law must also be distinguished from the law that evolved out of equity (principles of justice developed by the king’s chaplain, or chancellor to provide parties with a remedy when none was available in the kind’s courts) and out of admiralty (the law and court with jurisdiction over marine affairs in general).
The common law’s basis in court decisions, distinguishes it from the Romano-Germanic civil law, where the grounds for deciding cases are found in codes, statutes and prescribed texts.
(See table 1.6, p. 69 for the general characteristics of the world’s two major legal systems, common law and civil law)
The Islamic legal system is known as Shari’a.
Shari’a = The Islamic legal system. It is based on principles found in the Koran and related writings. It is derived from the following sources, in the order of their importance:
Sunna or traditional teachings and practices of the Prophet Muhammad
Writings of Islamic scholars who derived rules by analogy from the principles established in the Koran and the Sunna
Consensus of the legal community
The Shari’a is primarily a moral code, more concerned with ethics than with the promotion of commerce or international relations.
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- Voor wie extra kortingen wil op (reis)artikelen en services
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van de emigratie- en expatservice
JoHo donateur met service-abonnement III (= €5 + €40 per kalenderjaar):
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van een cv-check, persoonlijke adviesservices & de hoogste kortingen op artikelen, samenvattingen en services
JoHo donateur met een doorlopende verzekering
- Sluit je via JoHo een jaarlijks doorlopende verzekering af, dan kan je gedurende de looptijd van je verzekering gebruikmaken van de voordelen van service-abonnement III: hoge kortingen + volledig online toegang + alle extra services. Lees meer
Je bent al donateur, maar je hebt geen toegang
Indien het een adviespagina, keuzehulppagina of een (exclusieve) samenvatting betreft, dan heb je een (service)abonnement nodig om toegang te krijgen tot deze pagina. Lees hierboven meer over welk abonnement je kunt afsluiten.
Wil je tijdelijk extra toegang, bijvoorbeeld tot de Exclusive samenvattingen of keuzekits en advieswijzers, sluit dan als donateur een maandabonnement met volledige online toegang af. Lees hier meer over de voordelen en services bij dit tijdelijke (service)abonnement.
Samenvattingen & Studiehulp: Mogelijk heb je als JoHo donateur heb je vorig studiejaar, ter kennismaking, gebruik kunnen maken van de de toegang tot de online JoHo's (samenvattingen en studiehulp) voor de propedeusevakken. Dit studiejaar kan je gebruik blijven van de JoHo's door te 'upgraden' naar abonnement I of abonnement II en een voordelig JoHo (service)abonnement af te sluiten. Daarnaast kan je ter waarde van de kosten van je abonnement gratis JoHo's komen afhalen in de JoHo support centers!
Lees hier de antwoorden op de meest gestelde vragen.
Meer en uitgebreide advieswijzers
voor samenvattingen en stages - voor vacatures en sollicitaties - voor reizen en backpacken - voor vrijwilligerswerk en duurzaamheid - voor emigratie en lang verblijf in het buitenland- voor samenwerken met JoHo
Steun JoHo en steun jezelf door JoHo donateur te worden
Bezoek gratis de Nederlandse carrièredagen in de Jaarbeurs Utrecht!
JoHo is een ontwikkelingsorganisatie met wereldwijd winkels en websites,
waar mensen en organisaties worden gestimuleerd en geholpen bij talentontwikkeling en internationale samenwerking
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