JoHo & Leren
- Waar kan ik JoHo vinden?
- Waarom & hoe donateur worden?
- Waarom & hoe serviceabonnee worden?
- Waaraan denken voor en na je eindexamen?
- Waar & hoe stagelopen in Nederland?
- Waar en hoe studeren in het buitenland?
- Waar en hoe stagelopen in het buitenland?
- Waar en hoe een taalcursus- of reis doen?
- Waar en hoe vind ik een bijbaan of tijdelijk werk?
- Waar kan ik meer vinden over de TEFL cursus?
- UVA Psychologie Amsterdam
- VU Psychologie Amsterdam
RUG Psychologie Groningen
UL Psychologie Leiden
- RU Psychologie Nijmegen
- EUR Psychologie Rotterdam
- UU Psychologie Utrecht
- TiU Psychologie Tilburg
Pedagogiek & OK
Bedrijfskunde en International Business
- Business Economics
- Sociale wetenschappen
- Statistiek & Methoden en Technieken
- Samenvattingen gebruiken na je studie
- Studiehulp zoeken
- Waar en hoe vind ik een stage in het buitenland?
- Waar vind ik stages per werkveld?
- Waar vind ik stages die bij mijn opleiding passen?
- Welke organisaties kan ik het beste inschakelen of laten bemiddelen?
- Waar moet ik opletten als ik stage ga lopen in het buitenland?
- Stagelopen heeft invloed op mijn verzekeringssituatie .. hoe zit dat?
- Waar vind ik extra fondsen of financiering?
- Voor abonnees
- Voor donateurs
- Bijbanen & Studentenbanen
- Sabbatical nemen en carrière switch zoeken
- Hoe maak ik gebruik van de vacatureservice?
- Hoe kan je je competenties & kwaliteiten checken?
- Hoe maak je werken leuk?
- Hoe vind ik werk dat bij mij past?
- Wat leer ik van tijdelijk werk in het buitenland?
- Samenvattingen zoeken voor je oriëntatie
- Voor donateurs
Summary Work in the 21st century
Te gebruiken bij
Auteur(s): Landy & Conte
Druk/Jaar van uitgave: 2013
Remarks & Related
Chapter 14 is not included in this summary.
Zoek recente samenvattingen & studiehulp
Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.1 Industrial and Organizational Psychology
The Importance of Work
Because people spend most of their weekdays and some of their weekends engaged in, or thinking about, work, it is important to research. Even if a job sucks, most people would rather continue working than be unemployed or retire, even if financially taken care of.
Gardner characterizes good work as that which requires high expertise and makes a regular impact and application to the world. Cutting corners can lead to compromised work, which undermines the values of a trade or profession. Essentially, it's cheating. Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I-O Psychology) is the study of the work as it is experienced, the thoughts and behaviours associated with working.
I-O Psychology and Society
I-O psychology is the application of psychological principles, theories, and research directed towards the work setting. This includes work behaviour, both in and out of the workplace, as well as the influence the work experience has on the rest of life, like family, health, and relationships. I-O psychology can be divided into three major areas:
Personnel psychology: related to the hiring, firing, evaluation, training and performance of employees.
Organizational psychology: address emotions, motivation, and interpersonal behaviour in the context of social psychology and the organization.
Human engineering (human factors psychology): looking at the human capacity and limitations in any given environment, towards improving the working environment for people.
A more formal definition of I-O psychology, approached from the perspective of the I-O psychologist and what he or she does, has been adopted by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists recognize the interdependence of individuals, organizations and society and they recognize the impact of factors such as increasing governmental influences, growing consumer awareness, skill shortages, and the changing nature of the workforce.
Things to Consider
The world of work has changed greatly since the 1980’s in a number of ways. Things have been digitized and computerized, allowing work to change – we spend much of our time in front of computers, and some of us even telecommute (work from home). Meetings can be done via videoconferencing. Work performance can be more closely monitored by digital means. More work is team-based, and most jobs are service-oriented.
Most sectors of business are unstable, and workers expect more recognition for their efforts. Workplaces are increasingly diverse. The nature of work is more fluid, and a good deal of work is conducted internationally.
Understanding the Young Worker
A large population of the workforce are young, part-time workers. The “first job” can be seen as either the first full-time position after education is complete, or as the first paying job outside of the home. The choice of what to consider a “first job” can change the sample demographic by many years of age. What has been found about young workers is that they tend to find jobs that involve acquiring new skills and using current skills to be the most satisfying. If in an under-skilled or non-challenging environment, they may develop a disinterest in the work. Young workers tend to be technologically sophisticated and are often valuably open-minded in an expanding workplace. Entry-level positions often consist of menial activities, but with the skills that many beginning workers now have, this could lead to unnecessary demotivation and a negative outlook on work.
Working alongside school can be detrimental if the type of work is long, poorly scheduled, and unrelated to the main trajectory of study. Work that uses skills learned in the study itself, however, has been found to be beneficial to learning.
1.2 Past, Present, and Future
The History of I-O Psychology
Wundt, Munsterberg, and Cattell
Wilhelm Wundt, after beginning his psychological laboratory in 1876, had within 10 years established a popular educational training program and was well underway in his efforts to establish psychology as a science. Hugo Munsterberg, who studied under Wundt, went to Germany and was among the first to measure worker’s abilities to perform and analyzed the results with the beginnings of what would develop into today’s statistical practices. He made the first I-O psychology textbook. Cattell was a contemporary to Munsterberg, living and working in America. He worked to find general laws of behavior, at first ignoring the “errors” of individual differences, then realizing that these errors were key to understanding behavior.
Scott and Bingham
Walter Dill Scott and Walter Van Dyke Bingham (the two “Walters”) were, at this time, working at the Carnegie Institute to develop training and selection methods for sales personnel. They helped test and place army recruits and adapted the Stanford-Binet intelligence test to be suitable for group testing, in a test called the Army Alpha.
Gilbreth and Hollinworth
The first graduate of I-O psychology was Lillian Gilbreth, who applied Taylor’s principles of Scientific Management to educational institutions. She and her husband became famous for their practice of human engineering, managing people to the minutest detail of their behavior. They used stopwatches to cut behavior down into its parts and train people to be more efficient with the smallest motions.
Harry Hollingworth was an early applied psychologist who, in 1911, defended the caffeine content of CocaCola as a substance that increases mental efficiency and performance rather than decreasing it. He was quickly asked to test a number of other things for business who wanted the help of a consultant.
Elton Mayo began studying the emotions of workers in 1924, especially those that caused pathological tendencies like revery obsession, resulting from repetitive and difficult work. He suggested that in these physically demanding but mentally empty tasks, the workers mind would wander to paranoid thoughts and disobedience. When appointed to Harvard, a series of studies were being undertaken called the Hawthorne studies, which involved changing elements of the environment, break times, and other such things in attempts to increase productivity. Mayo discoveredthat the emotions of the workers actually played a role in their behavior, and the mere fact of being watched and measures had a significant impact on their behavior. This eventually became known as the Hawthorne Effect.
Human Relations Movement
These studies ledto the Human Relations Movement. Motivation and emotion became more important in I-O psychology. Many of Mayo’s efforts became about increasing productivity and counseling the workers in ways that would achieve this. Arthur Kornhauser, on the other hand, applied his research to the betterment of the situation of the worker rather than the management.
World War II
World War II saw the invention of far more advanced and complicated technology than was known in World War I, especially in the air force. More complicated aircraft (and many different types) meant that pilots had to be able to quickly understand the cockpit controls of new planes – failing to understand could lead to death. Applied psychologists helped standardize the controls so that they could easily be recognized, and the accidents were reduced. This and many other applied psychological projects paved the way for later developments. After the war, for instance, there was an increase in labour unrest that prompted psychological research on how personality, interests, and attitudes affect working motivation and satisfaction.
1964 to the Modern Era
After the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment discrimination was dealt with in such a way that tests used for personnel selection had to be justified. The period following this time involved a shift of thinking and the adoption of the new name, paying more attention to the individual perspective and to job satisfaction, but within the larger social system. Major changes include:
Mental ability tests are no longer the focus but are only one of the important measures used – personality is increasingly considered.
Productivity and efficiency are still addressed, but the well-being, social life, and behavior of the workers is now more important.
I-O psychologists take a systems view, seeing work behavior as a component in a number of overall life variables.
Not just the worker, but also the work group, the organization, and the culture can be subjects of study.
I-O Psychology Demographics
The APA (American Psychological Association) was founded in 1892. Since then, there have been demographic shifts – there are now more women and more people of diverse origins in the field. Salary, employment setting, field of focus, and a number of other factors also differ greatly between individual psychologists. The term I-O psychologist is used in the United States, but in other places terms like organizational psychologist, work psychologist, and applied psychologist are used.
1.3 Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Issues
A culture is a system within which individuals share common ways of viewing events and objects. There are very many different cultures, so, of course, these all end up giving different results in psychological research. Work plays a different role in people’s lives depending on the culture in which they live – what people earn and why, work ethic, management practices, attitudes towards unemployment… all of these things can vary. Since this is the case, and since many workplaces are multicultural, it is important to know where and how cultures interact with one another.
There has been an increase in the prevalence of trans-national corporations and general global connections between businesses. There is a global economy. As such, a person working in a major company will often find themselves in contact with people living and working in other parts of the world, either in-person or through tele-communications. The importance of understanding differences and being able to work with diverse cultures is increasing. Organizations need to develop training programs, regulations, and motivational activities that can apply to a more diverse group than ever before. Individual differences are caused by many factors, one of which is culture.
Multiculturalism and I-O Psychology
Western researchers tend to develop their theories to relate only to Western cultures, probably because it’s just easier. Many of the results of their research cannot be generalized to non-Western cultures, and neither can the treatments developed to deal with psychological issues.
Since the definitions of psychology tend to include phrases that imply it relates to all of human behavior, there can be an implied discrimination in maintaining this one-size-fits-all mentality. There is another problem: expatriates, people from one country who work in a location outside of their homeland. Some of these people fail to adapt to the culture of their new location, making the selection of workers who will become expatriates a matter of particular interest.
Theories of Cultural Influence
Individualism and Collectivism
One way to conceptualize cultural differences is to understand them according to the underlying values of collectivism (the group is more important than the individual) and individualism (the individual is more important than the group). Looking at cultures according to where they fit on this continuum can help managers develop customized methods.
Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede identified five basic dimensions, including individualism-collectivism, upon which cultures differ, making up the collective psyche of a culture. Hofstede has since refined his theory to apply to the workplace, describing characteristic work behaviours associated with the different dimensions. His dimensions are:
Power distance: the degree to which people accept inequalities between those in power and those below them.
Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people feel uncomfortable with uncertainty.
Masculinity-femininity: The distribution of emotional roles between genders (men=tough, women=tender), either valuing accomplishment and technical skill or relationships and communication.
Long-term vs. short-term orientation: The degree to which people delay gratification of their material, emotional, and social needs.
Horizontal and Vertical Cultures
Triandus suggested that another dimension actually interacts with the collectivist-individualist dimension: horizontal cultures vs. vertical cultures. Horizontal cultures seek to minimize distances between people while vertical cultures accept and depend on distances.
Cultural variables are one of many influences on work behavior.
JoHo donateurs ontvangen 10% korting op de scriptiebegeleiding van ScriptieMaster.
word JoHo donateur of abonnee voor online toegang
Korte advieswijzer JoHo services
JoHo donateur (= €5 per kalenderjaar):
- Voor wie JoHo wil steunen
- Voor wie toegang wil tot de (service)abonnementen
- Voor wie van basiskortingen gebruik wil maken
JoHo donateur met service-abonnement I (= €5 + €10 per kalenderjaar): upgrade naar abonnement I
- Voor wie toegang wil tot de online JoHo's en boeksamenvattingen
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van de vacatureservice en bijbehorende keuzehulp & advieswijzers
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van keuzehulp en advies wil bij werk in het buitenland, lange reizen, vrijwilligerswerk, stages en studie in het buitenland
JoHo donateur met service-abonnement II (= €5 + €20 per kalenderjaar): upgraden naar abonnement II
- Voor wie online volledig gebruik wil maken van alle JoHo's en boeksamenvattingen voor alle fases van een studie, met toegang tot alle online HBO & WO boeksamenvattingen en andere studiehulp
- Voor wie extra kortingen wil op de JoHo's en boeksamenvattingen
- Voor wie extra kortingen wil op (reis)artikelen en services
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van de emigratie- en expatservice
JoHo donateur met service-abonnement III (= €5 + €40 per kalenderjaar):
- Voor wie gebruik wil maken van een cv-check, persoonlijke adviesservices & de hoogste kortingen op artikelen, samenvattingen en services
JoHo donateur met een doorlopende verzekering
- Sluit je via JoHo een jaarlijks doorlopende verzekering af, dan kan je gedurende de looptijd van je verzekering gebruikmaken van de voordelen van service-abonnement III: hoge kortingen + volledig online toegang + alle extra services. Lees meer
Je bent al donateur, maar je hebt geen toegang
Indien het een adviespagina, keuzehulppagina of een (exclusieve) samenvatting betreft, dan heb je een (service)abonnement nodig om toegang te krijgen tot deze pagina. Lees hierboven meer over welk abonnement je kunt afsluiten.
Wil je tijdelijk extra toegang, bijvoorbeeld tot de Exclusive samenvattingen of keuzekits en advieswijzers, sluit dan als donateur een maandabonnement met volledige online toegang af. Lees hier meer over de voordelen en services bij dit tijdelijke (service)abonnement.
Samenvattingen & Studiehulp: Mogelijk heb je als JoHo donateur heb je vorig studiejaar, ter kennismaking, gebruik kunnen maken van de de toegang tot de online JoHo's (samenvattingen en studiehulp) voor de propedeusevakken. Dit studiejaar kan je gebruik blijven van de JoHo's door te 'upgraden' naar abonnement I of abonnement II en een voordelig JoHo (service)abonnement af te sluiten. Daarnaast kan je ter waarde van de kosten van je abonnement gratis JoHo's komen afhalen in de JoHo support centers!
Lees hier de antwoorden op de meest gestelde vragen.
Meer en uitgebreide advieswijzers
voor samenvattingen en stages - voor vacatures en sollicitaties - voor reizen en backpacken - voor vrijwilligerswerk en duurzaamheid - voor emigratie en lang verblijf in het buitenland- voor samenwerken met JoHo
Steun JoHo en steun jezelf door JoHo donateur te worden
Bezoek gratis de Nederlandse carrièredagen in de Jaarbeurs Utrecht!
JoHo is een ontwikkelingsorganisatie met wereldwijd winkels en websites,
waar mensen en organisaties worden gestimuleerd en geholpen bij talentontwikkeling en internationale samenwerking
|Samenwerken & Adverteren||World Supporter platform||World Summaries platform||Expat platform||World Activity Platform||Emigratie platform||Jouw account pagina|
|JoHo||JoHo & Leren||JoHo & Werken||JoHo & Reizen||JoHo & Emigreren||You & JoHo|