International and Travel Insurances
- A long trip is the adventure of a lifetime and will broaden your world view. Experience what it is like to live in a different culture and let it change you, for the better! Meet new and interesting people, make life long friends and be awed by totally different cultures and traditions.
- Let those pictures of breathtaking views and chilled out crowds be an inspiration for your trip. JoHo is here to encourage you to make it happen but to also be prepared for the stressful sides of traveling. A change of diet (and not to mention hygiene) may upset your stomach. Something unexpected might happen back home that may cut your travels short. JoHo can help you find the tools to deal with these situations and be prepared for both the up- and the downsides of travelling!
- A crucial part for a carefree journey is a good travel insurance. On this page you can read more about JoHo's travel insurances for backpackers and (longterm) travellers and what to look out for.
- Regular travel or health insurances often only cover trips for a maximum number of days (for example 60, 90 or 180 days). This limits your flexibility!
- Your health insurance from back home may not offer any coverage abroad or only in specific hospitals.
- During a long trip you might undertake special activities like paid work or volunteering. Regular travel insurances usually don’t cover these kind of activities. The same goes for adventurous sports like skydiving, scubadiving and bungee jumping.
- Working as a volunteer or intern offers a great learning experience. Meet new people and make a difference! You will develop your knowledge and skills, as well as that of others. You will gain international skills, contribute to a better world and gain useful experience for on your resume.
- However, just like at home there is always a chance that something goes wrong during your time abroad. Such as sickness, accidents, stolen luggage and of course things that can go wrong back home that you may ned to return for.
- If you have the right travel insurance it will help you financially and offer help when you need it. On this page you can read about how you can make sure you’re properly insured before, during and after your work as a volunteer.
- Volunteer projects, foundations , NGOs & local companies typically don’t have suitable insurance. Even if they do, it might only be valid during your time at work and not during your daytrips.
- Regular travel insurances often don’t cover volunteering abroad or your work as an intern
- Volunteerwork & internships often involves doing work for which you are not trained or have little experience doing. This might result in a higher chance for accidents.
- JoHo & World Nomads Insurance
- JoHo & Bupa International Travel Insurance
- Suitable for trips up to 12 months
Planning, Period and time of the year
- When you are planning a trip it is important to know what is the best time to visit a specific country. It can be pretty disappointing to find out that it is actually winter while you planned to spend a few weeks on a sunny tropical beach. When it is winter north of the equator, it is summer on the other side. The summer is not automatically the best time to visit certain areas. In short, when to go can be quite a complicated matter. When you are going to your dream destination make sure to check the weather and other conditions during the time of your visit!
- Often the rainy season in a tropical country is not as harmful as it seems (Indonesia, Thailand). Most of the time the weather is fine unless you are very unlucky. Look for a destination where the weather differs per region, so that you can always escape from the rain.
- Watch out for places that are known for extreme weather. Natural phenomenons such as hurricanes and cyclones are usually not a lot of fun.
- If you are going scuba diving, make sure that during the time your visit the sea is not to rough, so that the view will be clear.
- In some areas diseases, such as malaria, are being spread during specific seasons
- Going to Africa to see some wildlife? Make sure you to plan your trip when the wildlife parks are open. You do not want to find out that the park is closed when you already are in Tanzania.
- Some places can be a lot of fun to visit during special events, such as carnival in Brasil, a mid-summer night party in Scandinavia etc). Sometimes it is better to avoid certain events. Try, for instance, to find a restaurant that is open during the Ramadan in a Muslim country.
- Unfortunately our climate is changing, so you cannot completely rely on the information that is available. It happens more and more that locals tell you that it is the first time in thirty years that it is raining this early in the season or that they don’t understand where all the clouds are coming from.
- People have different opinions about the best time to visit a specific region. Some people like to go to a place when it is 40 degrees Celsius, while other people already think 20 degrees Celsius is too hot.
- Be aware of the difference between minimum and maximum temperatures. The minimum temperature in San Francisco in the summer is 12 degrees and the average temperature is 18 degrees. This means that in the evening you will need a sweater.
- Be aware of height. Ecuador is a tropical country, but the capital Quito lies 3000 meters above sea level. This means that it can be very warm during the day, but very chilly in the evening.
- The temperature of the sea water can be much colder than the temperature of the air. The weather in Tunisia might be OK in February or March, but swimming can be very unpleasant at that time of the year.
- For most travelers the answer to this question depends on their school, university, job, family, friends etc. The only question that really matters for them is how much time you need to visit a certain regions or countries. For people who are traveling for a few months or longer, there are some extra factors to take into consideration:
- When does the travel tiredness strike? (the moment you are fed up with all those amazing temples)
- What can you do to avoid travel tiredness?
- When becomes traveling a "race"?
- How long does it take to travel over land though a certain continent?
A week to two weeks
- In recent years it has become much easier to take a shorter/in between break/holiday to a far away destination: you can go by car to Italy to go skiing (depending on where you are coming from). Cheap tickets are also available to countries in the Mediterranean sea and even to some Caribbean Islands. The downside of these cheap last minutes is that people run the risk of arriving at a destination where the water is freezing cold, temperatures are low or heavy rainfall spoils your stay.
- Depending on the flight time the following destinations are suitable for a short holiday:
- Between November and April/May: Sri Lanka, Maldives, Gambia/Senegal, Zanzibar, Goa, Caribbean Islands, Florida, Bali, Thailand and Mexico.
- The temperature is not as stable but the Canary Islands, Jordan or the Red Sea (scuba diving) also great places for a one or two week holiday.
Three to four weeks
- The best time to explore and get familiar with a country or a large part of a country is somewhere between three to four weeks. Even most “world” travelers do not stay much longer in a particular area. In three or four weeks you can easily travel around, visit a few cities and still have some time to relax and take it easy. Try to avoid areas where it will take up to 3 days to travel from one highlight to another.
- The best destinations for three to four weeks on holiday are: Ecuador, Peru/Bolivia, Guatemala/Honduras, Southern Africa, China, Tibet, North India, Nepal, South India, Thailand, Malaysia, parts of Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, the US West Coast.
From a few months to a year
- How long should your world trip take? Do you need a year or is a month or four months sufficient? Of course this depends on your travel plan and your budget. In practice not many people manage to do a proper around-the-world trip in a year. Due to limited resources or time most world travelers will have to skip large parts of the world. If you would like to make a trip from Australia to India through South East Asia to India and China it is possible to do this in three to five months. When you do this you spend just as long in one country as it takes other world travelers to travel several continents.
- Skipping expensive countries, such as Australia, New Zealand and North America, is a good way to save money, so that you can stay away for a longer time. The more time you have for your trip the easier it will be to change your plans completely or stay at one place for a longer period without ruining your plans.
- When you are traveling for less than three months you probably don’t need an expensive travel insurance, tickets will be cheaper, it is easier and quicker to save the money for your trip and it will be much easier to fit into your study schedule or work.
- North Thailand: best: November to February, least favorable seasons are from April to September. During the latter period southeast Thailand is the best place to visit as well as the South.
- South Thailand: best time to visit is March to May
- Laos: best time to visit is from November to February
- Myanmar(Burma): best time to visit is from November to February
- Indonesia: relatively calm weather, no extreme seasons
- Malaysia: only from November to January the weather is not as good as the rest of the year.
- Himalaya: Eastern India: best from April to November
- Nepal and Western India: best time to visit October to December and February to April.
- Tibet: best time to visit May to October. From November to March it can be (too) cold and there can be a lot of snow
- Mongolia: best time to visit from May to October
- China: best time to visit March / April and September / October
- The Andes (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru): from June to September is the best time to visit, but this area is accessible during the whole year.
- Bolivia: December to April in the Andes is the best. In the Amazon you will then be bothered by the mud, insects and other inconveniences.
- Peru: it is better to avoid the months December to April when you want to visit Machu Picchu/Cuzco. The Amazon: May-July are the “best” times for a visit. From December to April it will rain even more than is usually does. During the rainy season in the Peruvian Amazon it rains two times a day on average, but in between the showers the weather will be fine.
- Iguazu Falls: December-April is the best time for a visit.
- Central America: best time to travel is from December to April/May, after these months the rainy season begins. Countries with nicer weather during these months are: Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala.
- Southern Africa: April-September are the best for visiting. For Cape Town and the surrounding areas November-March are the best times to visit.
- Eastern Africa: June to October is the best time for visiting, followed by December to February.
- West Africa: November - December are the best time to visit.
- The best times to visit the wild parks in Southern Africa are in the European (late) summer (during the dry season the animals will come out to the drinking spots where you can see them) but there are other good periods for a visit.
- During the summer it can get very hot, but the other seasons the weather is usually fine.
- Be aware that in winter the northern part can become ice cold and in the south it can get surprisingly cool.
- Northern Europe: countries such as the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Germany are quite cold and humid to visit during the period November-March. These months are, however, ideal for skiing activities (In Switzerland, Austria etc.). April-September is a very pleasant time for traveling throughout Europe, as temperatures do not tend to be very high.
- Southern Europe, including countries like Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Portugal, has a pleasant climate with sunny days throughout the year, although the summer months July and August can be unpleasantly warm on some days.
- Canada and Alaska can be very cold and dark during the period November-March. The period outside these months would be more suitable to visit these countries, but since it concerns such a wide area, there are a lot of regional differences.
- The United States also varies per region, but in general has cold winters, hot summers and mild fall and spring seasons. The south can be very humid with sporadic rainfall and has two subtropical seasons, contrary to most states.
- Mexico has a wet and a dry season, with warm and humid weather throughout the year. Mexico also has a hurricane season lasting from June through November.
Budget and saving money on your travels abroad
- Of course expenses differ per person and also per destination. You can spend a fortune anywhere, but traveling on a shoestring is not always an option. With a 1000 Euro it is going to be hard to survive in the US for a month, but in India the same budget is plenty to enjoy yourself. It is easy to calculate how much you will spend in a country when prices are more or less the same as in your home country, but when you go to countries with different living standards this can be tricky.
- Indications per destination (do take into consideration that all estimations here are relative): how many days can a backpacker survive with a € 1000 in Japan: 14 days, France: 20 days, England / Italy: 22 days, Australia: 30 days, Mexico: 44 days, South Africa: 45 days. Nepal: 50 days, Bolivia: 54 days. India 67 days.
- Save money by not traveling too much and avoiding the most expensive spots in a country (usually the big cities and all the tourist highlights)
- Avoiding the high seasons will probably save you a lot money on accommodation.
- Staying at one place for a long time might save you money, because you will have some time to figure out where the cheapest place is to eat, to sleep and to get a beer.
- A sudden financial crisis in country might give you the opportunity to spend the night in the most luxurious hotels for the price of an average hostel. Also you might be able to book local flights for a nickel and a dime.
- By traveling at night you can save some money on accommodation.
- Sleeping in a dormitory will save you a lot of money, compared to staying in private rooms all the time. A lot of hostels for backpackers have rooms for the extreme low budget travelers. Be careful though, the rooms can be very revolting and sometimes your roommates are not trustworthy. On the other hand these rooms are an excellent way of meeting other people.
- When you arrive at your destination search a little longer for the cheapest place to stay as that will save you a lot of money.
- In bars always order the local brew instead of the familiar Western drinks.
- If you are traveling with someone else you can share the costs of your accommodation, which will eventually make quite a difference in your budget.
- There is no simple answer to this question. Many factors influence your budget: are you going alone or with an organization? If you are going with an organization, are the costs for eating, drinking and accommodation included or do they only offer you a place in the project? Is your travel insurance included? How long are you going for? What else do you need to arrange for yourself?
- Costs in advance: Also see the sections about tickets, transportation, health/vaccinations, insurance, visa and other requirements.
- Costs are per person
- The amounts mentioned in “traveling” section are based on independent trips for two persons.
- If you are going to visit countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan and the USA expect the costs to be much higher.
Projects, volunteer work, Internships
- 5-10 euro per day: Longterm projects in Asia/Africa/Latin America sometimes without board and lodging, projects in Europe for a couple of weeks.
- 10-25 euro per day: projects in Asia/Africa/Latin America often with board and lodging, projects in Europe involving wild life conservation, social projects, in Europe projects for a few weeks.
- 25-50 euro per day: Long term projects in Asia/Africa/Latin America often with board and lodging, occasionally insurance and language courses are included, rare projects in the field of wildlife conservation.
- 5-10 euro per day: Spend almost every night in dormitories, or share rooms in the cheapest hostels, especially in Asia. Don’t travel around in Africa or Latin America, and if you do, bring your own tent. Always arrange the cheapest form of transportation, take your time for everything. Always bargain for prices, do not undertake too many fun activities such as diving, rafting, jungle tours etc. Travel at night and only rest at the cheap spots on the beaches.
- 10-25 euro per day: In Africa and Latin America a lot of camping or sleeping at cheap places, every now and then some fun activities, be careful with your budget, but a, especially in Asia, you will be able to find a room with a private bathroom most of the time.
- 25-50 euro per day: Your own bamboo tent/cottage with private bathroom, plenty nice meals with a cold beer, traveling by bus or train with AC (air conditioning) instead of that crappy train that leaves at 4 in the morning and brakes down somewhere along the way. You don’t mind spending some extra baht on the Tuk tuk driver, you do a lot of fun stuff like jungletreks, scuba diving, renting motorcycles etc, and of course you send home a few fancy souvenirs.
Around the world in a year
- Tickets: ranging from 1000-2000 euro pp
- Of course you can also buy a ticket to Thailand for a few hundred euros and return from there or buy a Transsiberia train ticket available from a couple of a hundred euros. You will have to spend a lot more, if you have to buy expensive transportation tickets during traveling.
- Travel insurance: On average between 500-1500 pp.
- Health Expenses: On average between 100-250 pp
- If you have not had any vaccinations than it might cost you a lot of money depending on your destination and how long you are going for.
- If you are going to a malaria area the term of your stay and your choice of medication can make a huge financial difference.
- Travel equipment: On average between 250-500 euro pp.
- Of course you will spend more if you purchase new gear and a lot smart gadgets.
- Visa: On average between 25-50 euro per country.
- These expenses can be quite annoying when you visit a large number of countries.
- On the road expect expenses per day between 15-35 euro.
- Continuous costs: very different per person.
- Take your rent, mortgage, subscriptions, insurances, taxes etc. into consideration.
- Realize that fewer countries means less visa, less exchange fees, etc., This means you will save money!
- Take between 250-500 dollars cash with you (or, depending on the region, some of it in euros). Half of that amount should be considered money for emergencies, do not keep all of it at the same spot. The other part should be used when paying cash is your only option.
- Whether you have to take debit cards, or other means, with you, depends on where you are going, for how long you, what sort of trip, what kind of transportation.
Visa and documents for work and travel abroad
- You can obtain a visa through a travel agency (which organizes your trip for instance), through a visa company or simply via the embassy or consulate of the country you wish to travel to. An advantage of one of the first two options is that you do not have to worry about your visa, as the company or agency has the responsibility to deliver you your visa in time. A disadvantage is that you will have to pay the agency for their mediation, which you do not have to do if you apply for a visa directly at the embassy or consulate.
- Regulations concerning visas tend to change a lot and varies for each country. Travel agencies and even specialized visa offices do not always have up-to-date and practical information about visas. Note that also embassies do not always have correct and up-to-date information. We try our best to have the most relevant and practical information.
- Therefore, if you are in doubt, always check the current policies by using sources such as embassies, consulates, internet forums, visa offices and other travelers.
When you apply for a visa take the following into account.In certain countries:
- Your passport (see below)
- You might need a copy of your ticket or booking statement from your travel agency stating that you will leave the country after a certain period.
- You might be asked to provide a statement of good behavior in order to get a visa. (It may take some time to get this)
- You might be asked to hand over a document (medical passport) to proof you have had certain vaccinations (mostly Cholera or Yellow Fever)
- You will be required to show an address where you are staying during your visit. If you do not have an address, pick a hotel from your Lonely planet.
- Multiple entry visa allow you to enter a country multiple times till the date of expiry of the visa. This will come in handy if you are planning on visiting other countries in the area.
- You have to apply for a visa that is valid until the return date on your ticket. You are not allowed to stay in a country, if the visa term has already passed. Visa terms are usually very strict, so please be aware of that!
- You could also look for an airline that does not require a return ticket or a ticket with a specific date of departure. How do you find such an airline? Call local airlines and ask them if this rule applies to them. If they say it is not a problem always ask written proof of this.
- Applying for a visa can take a long time (several weeks). When applying for a visa check if it is compulsory to apply in advance or if you can get one at arrival into a country.
- In case you need multiple visa it advisable to apply for one at a time because a mistake in the visa can lead to it being rejected.
- Before you start your journey make sure to extend your passport on time, especially when you leave last minute. Some countries expect you to have a passport valid for at least six months after your last day in the country (e.g. Indonesia and Tanzania).
- Make sure your passport has enough room for stamps. Many countries demand an empty page to stamp your passport when you enter the country and when you are leaving the country (business travel passport may need more room in there passport). For business travelers and travelers who will visit a lot of countries during their journey it is advisable to get a second passport.
- An international driving licenses is always convenient to bring along with you when you are traveling abroad (in most western countries and also in some non-western countries it is not always necessary to have one)
- It might be convenient to have when wanting to rent a motor bike.
- A number of countries state that on entry you have to be able to proof that you will also leave the country after a certain period of time.
- If you have a single ticket because you would like to travel around a number of countries, or have a date on your ticket outside the date of expiry of your visa, this might cause problems entering a country.
- When you are not in possession of a return ticket you take the risk of being send back to your home country. Despite this, the airline will be held responsible for passengers who are not in possession of the correct ticket. Therefore, most airlines demand that before entering the plane you will be able to proof that you have booked a return ticket within the time limit of your visa (if applicable)
- In certain countries it is useful to bring a vaccination or medical passport with you. If you are under medication it can be convenient to bring a document listing the types of medicine you are taking.
- Cholera: Note that it is possible to get (or buy) a stamp proofing you got your Cholera vaccination. When entering a country, or applying for a visa they might ask for this.
- Passport photo: It is always convenient to carry a few passport photos with you. When applying for a visa or if you have lost your passport and have to apply for an emergency document, they come in very handy.
- Bring a copy of your passport, Travelers Cheques and tickets with you, but also give them to your traveling partner and also somebody back at home.
- You can also use internet services, such as hotmail, gmail and yahoo to save important documents. It is even better to scan documents, such as your passport and save these files on your personal account.
- Learn your passport number by heart or write it down somewhere, because in many countries you might be required to register your passport number, date of issue, and the place where your passport was issued. When you constantly remove your passport from your bag it might attract attention for thieves.
- If you are going to an Arabic country and you need a passport photo(visa/international driving license) than it is compulsory for women to wear a headscarf on the pictures.
- If your documents have been stolen, make sure to check your travel insurance, as this is often covered by them.
- JoHo also offers travel, health and liability insurances. As a JoHo supporter you can obtain these insurances with discount or cashback.
- Please see the JoHo Insurances website for an overview of the insurances JoHo offers.
- In some countries you have to bring ID when you are going out (e.g. Africa, USA). It is advisable not to bring your passport, but some other ID, such as an international driving license.
- In some Arabic countries it might cause some problems if you have an Israeli visa in your passport, then it is better to have an extra passport without an Israeli visa/stamp.
- Use a secured computer system (from your bank or another organization) where you can safe the numbers and access codes of all your passes, passports and other important documents. You can also keep emergency and service numbers of your insurance company, telephone provider and bank here.
Healthy Travel, Malaria and Vaccines
- Staying healthy during your trip to a foreign country is very important. For each trip you need to think what kind of medicine you have to bring and which extra measures you have to take to stay healthy.
- Vaccines are not perfect. New vaccines are constantly being released but diseases continue to evolve
- Some vaccines require a long period to take effect, but it is never too late to vaccinate
- Health risks within a country can vary from locality to locality and local authorities may be slow to announce outbreaks of disease
- Common infections contracted by travelers include those which follow contaminated food or water. Find out whether tap water and local food is safe to consume before you depart
- There are a number of mosquito-born illnesses you can contract while overseas particularly in tropical areas. Be sure to take measures to avoid being bitten such as wearing light colored, loose fitting clothing that covers your arms and legs, regularly applying an appropriate insect repellent and staying in mosquito proof accommodation.
- Travel websites, such as Lonely planet or Footprint, have useful health information as well.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all travelers should be covered from diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella and polio, as well as Hepatitis B, regardless of their destination. Since most vaccines don’t produce immunity until a couple of weeks after they’re given, it is advised to visit a physician a couple of weeks before you travel.
- Make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic to have a basic check-up and find out if any vaccinations or health checks are required at least 6-12 weeks before you depart.
- Not all travelers to countries where there is a potential risk of infection need to be vaccinated but it is important that you discuss your personal travel plans with a doctor so they can determine the correct vaccinations for your trip.
- It is also possible to get your vaccinations at a JoHo service center. At the moment you can make an appointment at JoHo Service Center Utrecht for Saturdays, but soon the service will also be available at Service Center The Hague.
- Before leaving home, you should check that your medications are legal in the country you are visiting. You can do this by contacting the country’s embassy or high commission or by looking at official websites.
- Since the National Health Act was amended in 1999, it is an offense to carry or post Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) medicines overseas unless they are for your personal use, or the use of someone traveling with you.
- There are restrictions on the amount of PBS medicine that can be carried or sent overseas. When planning to travel overseas with PBS medicine it is important that you:
- Talk to your doctor and discuss the medicine you will need to take (if you need to take any medicine at all).
- Carry a letter from your doctor detailing what the medicine is, how much you will be taking, and stating that it is for your own personal use.
- Leave the medicine in its original packaging so it is clearly labeled with your name and dosage instructions.
- If you intend to travel with large quantities of medicine, including over-the-counter or private prescription medications, you should ask your doctor, dentist or pharmacist to provide you with a letter explaining why you need to carry such quantities.
- If you have to inject your medication it might be preferable to carry your own needles and syringes but you should check with the embassy or consulate of the country you are visiting to make sure that this is acceptable. If you buy needles and syringes while overseas, be sure that you buy packs that are sealed and sterile. If you need to carry needles and syringes with you on the plane, inform your airline before you travel and if necessary, arrange a letter from your doctor explaining why you need to carry them.
- It is important to be aware that some items purchased overseas may be packaged under a different brand name to those of the country of your destination. Keep an eye on the strength and active ingredients of similar-sounding medications overseas, they can vary.
- Yellow fever is a potentially fatal disease carried by certain mosquitoes in parts of South America and Africa. If traveling to these areas you should check with your travel clinic or doctor whether a vaccine is required. Yellow fever vaccine is only available from approved medical practitioners and must be given at least 10 days before traveling to infected areas.
- Yellow fever is contagious and can be spread by infected travelers, so if you are traveling to a country where yellow fever is a risk, you may need a certificate showing proof of yellow fever vaccination. Without this certificate you may be refused entry to some countries, or required to be vaccinated upon arrival.
- If you have stayed overnight or longer in a declared yellow fever infected country in Africa or South America, within six days prior to your arrival, you will require a valid international yellow fever vaccination certificate.
- The World Health Organization closely monitors reports of yellow fever infection and periodically publishes a list of countries where the disease occurs.
- Vaccination and validity: always recommended for far away destinations and Eastern Europe (also in East Europe)
- Last minute travelers (=two weeks before departure) who have not received a standard vaccination before: 2 weeks before leaving there are 2 possible injections left. They protect you for a maximum period of 8 months.
- Last minute travelers who are not going to diphteria endemic areas: If the trip is shorter than two months it is not necessary to get a DTP vaccination, except for persons who have never received the vaccination before. If your trip is shorter than 8 months only persons who have received just one DTP vaccination need an extra one.
- Background information: Diphtheria is a common disease in certain countries. This bacteria can cause a seriously swollen throat that makes it more difficult to breathe. If this bacteria gets into the blood it can infect the heart and can lead to death. The bacteria can also cause serious skininfections, although this form of dipthteria is less serious. It is highly recommended get a vaccination against this disease.
- Tetanus is found everywhere around the world. You can get this disease through street dirt, soil, manure or dust getting in a wound. When this happens the poison substances can cause the muscles all over your body to cramp. It can even cause breathing problems leading to death. A vaccination again tetanus every 10 years is recommended.
- The polio virus is highly contagious. It is passed on through faeces, contaminated food or drinking water. Polio is very common in places of less hygienic places, such as certain areas in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Contamination with the polio virus can cause permanent paralysis of the muscles. If it has been more than ten years since you have had your last vaccination against polio you need another vaccination before you leave.
- Vaccination and validity: Recommended when traveling to almost every far away destination. The gamma globulin injection is only effective for a few months and works passively. Nowadays you can also get a vaccination called Epaxal. It works actively for a minimum of 10 years and maybe longer. You can also get a vaccination of Hepatitis A+B (Twinrix) all at once.
- Background information: Hepatitis is a liver infection caused by bad hygiene or transmitted by infected water or food. It does not only exist in the tropics, but also in Turkey and East Europe.
- Vaccination and validity: Often recommended for Asia and Latin America. There is a medicine that you can swallow and an injection.
- Background information: It is a life threatening disease of the gastro-enteric channel. This disease is caused by the Salmonella typhus bacteria. This is an infection related to bad hygienes. If you have had your vaccination, it will only protect you for about 70-90%. Therefore, you still need to be careful with what you take in.
- Vaccination and Validity: a form of jaundice. Only high risk groups, (such as doctors, certain expats, and people who have intercourse with different partners) and travelers who are traveling longer than three months in an hepatitis B area need to get this vaccination. It is also possible to get the vaccination for Hepatitis A+B at once.
- Last minute: It is possible to get an accelerated injection, although this does not give similar protection.
- Background information: Hepatitis B is caused by a virus spread through blood to blood or through sexual contact. For example non sterile applied piercings, tattoos etc.
- Vaccination and validity: Recommended for people who are going to the countryside in the area between India and Japan.
- Background Information: Japanese encephalitis is a virus infection that is spread by by mosquitoes. People who are staying on the the countryside for a longer period during the season when the disease is spread run a higher risk.
- Vaccination and validity: sometimes recommended to people traveling for a long time to areas where TBC can reign.
- Details: The procedure is very complicated. Therefore, consult your personal doctor.
- Vaccination and validity: Only recommended to around the world travelers and expats.
- Details: expensive vaccine
- Rarely given vaccination and hardly ever recommended
- This vaccination is very rarely given, but some countries do ask for a vaccination stamp. This stamp is available at any vaccination institute.
- Mosquito stings spread the malaria disease.
- Malaria is one of the most common causes of death in the world and exists in any (sub)tropical area.
- Malaria is caused by parasites, plasmodium, which are being spread from human to human by a mosquito sting (it can also be spread by blood to blood contact of blood transfusion). These parasites first multiple in the liver and then in the red blood cells.
- Not all forms of malaria are equally dangerous. Malaria tropica is the most common form of malaria and, in general, the most serious form. It is caused by a parasite, called the Plasmodium falciparum. If malaria tropica is treated properly a person will recover completely. If this disease is not treated on time a person can die in a couple of weeks (depending on the time of diagnoses, in some cases a person can die within a few hours)
- If you take anti malaria tablets it will reduce the chances of getting malaria dramatically.
- There are no malaria tablets that offer full protection. The chance that you get malaria while taking tablets is still there.
- Avoiding mosquito stings will reduce the chance of getting malaria dramatically. You still have to take anti mosquito measures when taking malaria tablets.
- Malaria is becoming more and more difficult to fight as mosquitoes are becoming resistant to anti-malaria means.
- Cases of malaria usually occur with travelers (and people who mostly stay abroad) who take no (or insufficient) malaria medicine.
- Most fatal malaria cases among travelers are caused by an incorrect or late diagnoses.
- Malaria is extremely dangerous to pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are advised not to go to malaria areas.
- Malaria does not occur above 2500 meters.
- In certain countries there can be different malaria recommendations in different areas (such as Thailand, coastal areas much safer than the northern part)
- Malaria mosquitoes are mainly active at night (although dengue mosquitoes are active during the day).
- If you take a malaria tablet do keep in mind that you will have to take another dosage when you vomit within an hour.
- For more information about Malaria please check the WHO, Malaria en de CDC website.
- Don’t panic; almost every traveler will return home safe and healthy. Take the right precautions and enjoy your trip!
Types of Malaria
- Malaria tropica is the most dangerous form of malaria. If not treated properly it can lead to death in a couple of weeks. Malaria tropica is caused by a parasite, called Plasmodium falciparum. The fever attacks are unpredictable.
- If you take the malaria tablets as prescribed, chances of getting malaria tropicana are very slim. When traveling through resistant areas you have to be aware that that malaria can still strike.
- Malaria tropica is very common in areas such as tropical Africa, South East Asia and South and central America.
- Malaria tertiana is a form of malaria caused by a parasite, called Plasmodium vivax and/or Plasmodium ovale. This disease is characterized by fever attacks that occur in frequent peaks of 48 hours. The parasites can stay in your liver and cause a “delayed first attack” months or even years later. Malaria tertiana can only be prevented by taking profylaxe.
- Malaria tertiana can mainly be found in South East Asia, Central and South America and Ethiopia.
- Malaria quartana does not differ from malaria tertiana, except for the characteristic fever attacks that occur every 72 hours (instead of every 48 hours.) Malaria quartana is caused by a parasite called Plasmodim malariae and is a very rare disease.
- At the moment Malaria quartana is prevented by decent malaria tablets.
- Malaria can occur as a severe attack of cold shivers and fever, but also as a feverish feeling with headaches, but without any clear fever. It usually starts as a fever attack, cold shivers, muscles aches and headaches. This symptoms will return frequently every few days, if the infection is not treated. It can also be accompanied with vomiting, diarrhea, coughing and jaundice.
- It is very important to know that Malaria can spread to different parts of the body in as short as 24 hours!!! Any cold or fever that lasts longer than 2 days should be considered as malaria, until the contrary has been proven. If you think that you might have malaria you have to get your blood tested in the hospital or by a doctor. Malaria can be treated very well as long as it is discovered on time.
Malaria tablets (Profylaxe)
- Which malaria tablets are most suitable for you depends on your destination and the period of your stay. There are different forms of malaria in each area and in some areas mosquitoes can be resistant to anti-malaria tablets.
- Main Malaria tablets
- Nivaquine (chloroquine
- Lariam (Mefloquine)
- Malarone: (Combination of Atavaquon-Progunail)
- Fansidar: Not prescribed against malaria because of the serious side effects, but is still used to cure malaria.
- Maloprim: Due to the heavy side effects only used as a spare remedy.
- Halofantrine: Due to the side effects it is not used very often any more.
- Quinine: Used as a treatment against malaria.
- Artemesia annua (sweet wormwood) natural product available in many tropical countries. It has very little side effects, but it is not tested enough to pass western tests.
- Qinghaosu: A natural product
There are two options:
- Keep taking malaria pills, especially Lariam is suitable for longer periods, if you don’t suffer from any negative side effects. This can be expensive.
- Stop taking malaria tablets. If you do this you have to make sure to: avoid getting stung by mosquitoes. And make sure that you know where to find a doctor or hospital in case you get a malaria attack.
- PS: Be aware that no matter how long you stay in a malaria area, you do not become immune to malaria. You always run the risk of getting malaria.
- What ever kind of medicine you take, do keep in mind that for hundreds and hundreds of years people still get ‘tropical frenzy’ (due to food, climate, tiredness, new impressions etc). Take into account that some people just cannot stand tropical conditions. This is something you don’t have to be ashamed about. On your arrival take it easy for a few days, so that you can adjust to the new conditions. Do not start doing heavy duties, make sure that you have a relaxed program.
- Anti-motion sickness pills are usually indispensable in every medical box, even though you think that you might never get nauseous. A bus ride through the mountains of Nepal, a boat ride in a tropical storm or a flight during rough weather can even break the toughest guys. Also the fact that you will be able to read a book on an eight hour bus ride on a winding road will make anti-motion sickness worth carrying with you.
- A basic rule for travelers who are going to travel to the tropics is that you need to drink a lot of water, this way you will avoid a lot of problems.
- Make sure that you urinate enough. This is the best indicator for dehydration. Diarrhea is an important cause for dehydration. A package of Oral Rehydration System (ORS) can create miracles. If you suffer from dry eyes during your flight, bring some cucumber slices and put them on your eyes, or you can buy sleeping glasses/eye mask.
- In countries near the equator, such as Australia and Indonesia, there are very big chances of getting your skin burned. Every skin gets burned if it is exposed too much to the sun. How long it takes for this to happen depends on what kind of skin you have and where you are (in the mountains and around the equator the sun is much more there). The protection factor (Sun Protection Factor) mostly indicators how long you can stay under the sun. You can duplicate the time you would like to stay under the sun by applying more of the sun cream. During the first days your skin will get burned within 5 minutes without sun cream. If you use sun scream factor 15 than you can stay for about 75 minutes without getting burned to much. Do not take a lot of risk when you are traveling, for your own safety make sure you have done enough research. A backpack might not feel very nice when carrying it, if you are burned. When burned you consume more heat.
- This comes around because you are loosing a lot of moisture (without you noticing).
- Nauseous / throwing up
Treatment to dizziness
- Get the person out of the sun
- Cool them down by giving them a cold shower.
- Drink a lot, or use ORS.
- Do not eat vegetables or fruits that are not washed. You might come across it during your journey. You might consider the possibility of becoming a vegetarian or being very selective with where, when and what kind of meat you eat.
- Make sure that you always have enough food when you are traveling (it can happen that during a slow bus ride, slow boot ride, closed shops or restaurants you find yourself short of food or drinks).
- Purifying water has become less and less necessary. Even in the most remote areas, you can buy bottled water. They might not be cheap but water is some that you do not economize, especially in tropical areas, drinking water is very essential.
- Are you going to the jungle or to mountainous areas, climbing a volcano or are you going to an island where they have limited water supplies, a water purification equipment is the best way to purify tap water.
How can you purify water?
Sodium is the best way to purify water, but it will make the taste different from normal water. Tincture of iodine (2%, 4 drops in a liter of water, wait for half an hour before you drink it). Note: Sodium for disinfecting water is not suitable for pregnancy. Chlorine purifies water from viruses and bacteria’s, but not from parasites.
Micro infiltration can be found in equipments where water is very shattered. Here the bacteria’s and parasites are caught. Because there are a lot of viruses that still stay behind in the water, micro infiltration is used to capture the remaining viruses that stay behind. A very popular combination is sodium resin and micro infiltration coal brush where the coal brush takes away the chemicals. With this combination also pregnant women can drink the water.
- When you have treated the water, pour it in a cup with a tea bag and let most of the dirt disappear.
- To boil water abroad it is better to use kettle in combination with a cosmic plug. This way you can make a cup of coffee or tea.
- When purchasing bottled water make sure that the seal has not been opened; it happens that people sell water that is refilled or water that is not pure for drinking. Try and buy water that have a seal on them.
- Watch out for local drinks, it can happen that they are diluted with unpurified water.
- If you have a drink that is open make sure that you have it with you at all times. When asking for ice blocks, first ask from what kind of water they have been made from or just ask for a drink without ice blocks. Freezing does not kill any kind of bacteria.
- If you are going on a trip to a remote and primitive area it is very convenient to have a variety of antibiotics with you. Discuss with your doctor which ones are the best to take with you.
- Small skin wounds can grow into a bad infections in the tropics. Treat every wound that you might get very well. Protect infected wounds well from any type of bacteria. If the wound is still there after a couple of days it best to take antibiotics. Watch out for wounds that have been caused by chorister, because this can slowly lead to a very bad infection. Clean it very well and make sure that you get rid of all the chorister that is there.
- If you are going to travel in Europe, be aware of ticks. Ticks can be found in forests, gardens and on the beach and can bite into your skin. If a tick is long enough on your skin, you can obtain diseases such as the Lyme disease, CEE or RSSE encephalitis, Ehrlichiose and Fièvre boutonneuse.
- You can protect yourself from ticks by wearing long sleeves and pants and by using anti-tick spray on non-covered body parts. Always check yourself after spending a day in the forest or on the beach, as young ticks can only be 1 mm.
- In case you find a tick on your body, remove it with a special tick picker or a tick spoon. Make sure to not damage the tick, as the tick can still inject its poison into your skin. Do not treat the tick with oil or alcohol. However, after you have removed the tick with a picker, you should disinfect your skin with alcohol. If you do not have a tick picker or spoon, you should remove the tick by softly making circles on the tick with a wet finger. After a few minutes the tick will let go of your skin. Make sure to kill the tick between your nails, because the tick is not dead yet.
- If you have removed the tick within 24 hours, without damaging it, the chances for Lyme disease are small. In case a red circle is developing around the bite, or if you are experiencing symptoms of Lyme disease (head ache, stiff neck, fever etc.), you should contact a doctor.
- A vaccin excists against CEE or RSSE encephalitis . In some European countries this is even part of the national vaccination program.
Hoe werkt een JoHo Bundel (pagina)
- Bundels zijn verzamelingen (vaak links) van pagina's rond een specifieke vraag of onderwerp
- Bundels werken als navigatietool
Welke soorten bundels zijn er?
Verzekeringsbundels: verzameling van content rond verzekeringsadvies of verzekeringsaanbod
Abonnementsbundels: verzameling van content rond advies of services voor JoHo abonnees en donateurs
Shopbundels: verzameling van artikelen die besteld kunnen worden
- op vrijwel elke pagina kun je onder de 'Footprints' de 'Add to my pages' optie vinden. Daar kun je pagina's toevoegen aan je eigen verzamelingen en bundels. Deze bundels met jouw bewaarde pagina's kun je vervolgens onderaan vrijwel elke pagina terugvinden als je bent ingelogd als JoHo donateur of abonnee.
- Boekbundels: verzameling van chapters die tezamen de samenvatting van een boek vormen
- Studiebundel: verzameling van content die hoort bij een specifiek vak of een studiefase
Verzameling van content die behoort bij een topic en themapagina
Verzameling van content gericht op een specifiek proces of actie (bijvoorbeeld een vacature zoeken of een vak bestuderen)
Toolbundel voor abonnees
Verzameling van content met toegang of services voor JoHo abonees