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International Business Bachelor 1 University of Groningen - Advice & Summaries per course

Organizational Structure




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Booksummary Organisation Theory by Robbins & Barnwell

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    Organization Theory, Concepts and Cases - Robbins & Barnwell (English) - BulletPoints

    Chapter 1

    • An organization is a consciously managed and coordinated social entity, with an identifiable boundary, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals. This definition has multiple implications. These implactions have to do with hierarchy, interaction between people or groups of people, boundries in an organisation and organization are alive to achieve something.

    • Organizational structure has three components; complexity, formalization and centralisation. None of these components are either fully attained or not attained at all. These components are defined in in four different ways.

    • Organizations can be considered to be a system. These systems are a set of interrelated and interdependent parts which interact to produce a unified output. A systems perspective offers important insight into how organizations operate.

    • Systems can be seen as either closed or open. A closed-system is a system that is self-contained – it essentially ignores the effect of the environment on the system and does not interact with it. An open system recognizes the interaction of the system with its environment and its dependence upon it.

    • The organizational life cycle contains four different stages: Birth/formation, growth, maturity and decline. It also follows a five-stage model:

      1. Entrepreneurial stage

      2. Collectivity stage

      3. Formalization-and-control stage

      4. Elaboration-of-structure stage

      5. Decline stage.

    • The most important approaches to research in organization theory are: Positivism, Critical Theory and Postmodernism.

    Chapter 2

    • The division of labour is the breaking down of tasks into simple components which can be undertaken on a repetitive basis by job specialists. One of the first economists that paid attention to this was Adam Smith. His theory of division of labour implied that there had to be someone to decide what to produce, and then decide whom and what he needed for this. Smith was the first to describe the role of markets and the price system as mediator in economic exchange.

    • In the early 20th century, the classical school arose. Here, the universal idea of the theorists was that organizations should be managed to achieve rational goals.

    • Frederick Winslow Taylor came up with scientific management. This has four principles: Making everything exact, scientific selection of workers, cooperation of management and labour and a more equal division of responsibility.

    • Henri Fayol developed the principles of organization, which consists of: Division of work, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of the tenure of personnel, initiative and esprit the corps.

    • Max Weber proposed the ideal-type organization and it is called bureaucracy. These organizations were characterized by: division of labour, clear hierarchy, formal selection, detailed rules and regulations and impersonal relationships.

    • Ralph C. Davis invented the rational-planning perspective. A simple model for designing an organization.

    • Later on, theorists came up with the human-relations school. Trying to harmonize people and organizations. Elton Mayo was one of them. He became famous for the Hawthorne studies, which changed the design of most of the organizations drastically. Chester Barnard merged the ideas of Fayol, Taylor and Weber.

    • Douglas McGregor proposed two different views: Theory X and Theory Y.

      • Theory X has negative assumptions from managers

      • Under Theory Y, management's assumptions are rather positive.

    • The contingency approach views the structure of organizations as contingent. Organizations are formed by pressures and there are infinite structures for organizations. James Thompson was one of the people who followed this approach, he said that the type of technology determines an organization's structure. Miles and Snow link strategy to structure.

    • The symbolic-interpretive perspective views an organization as a social construct. It focuses on symbols and language in an organization. So did Peter and Waterman, who focused on organizational culture.

    • The agency theory lays it focus on the agent's of managers, which are his 'helpers'. Here, both the subordinates and the manager want to get as much profit as possible from working with each other. This, however, is not profitable, since this can cause tension.

    • The institutional theory claims that an organization is an institution, which means that it is a product of past actions.

    Chapter 3

    • The effectiveness of an organization is defined by how good they attain their short-term and long-term goals. There are multiple approaches to measures organizational effectiveness. We discuss the following: goal-attainment approach, systems approach, strategic-constituencies approach and the balanced scorecard approach.

    • The goal-attainment approach states that organizations life in order to attain goals. It assumes that organizations are rational, deliberate and goals-seeking entities. There are several assumptions with this approach: organizations must have goals, goals must be explicit, goals must be achievable and measurable.

    • Disadvantages of this approach are that it is difficult to set proper goals, and organizations have official and unofficial goals. Also, it is difficult to chose whether to use short-term or long-term goals, and rank these goals by importance.

    • Managers should make sure that people who set the goals receive proper input, recognize that organizations have short- and long term goals and make the goals tangible.

    • The systems approach views organizations as a system, where goals are just one part of the system. It says that organizations should also be judged on whether they 'acquire, maintain and interact'. The means are more important than the ends.

    • It looks at factors like: clarity of internal communication and rates of innovation. The concept of added value, developed by John Kay is important for this approach. It claims that organizations should be able to get inputs from its environment and make these inputs add value.

    • Disadvantages can be: sometimes, measures are vague and it focuses particularly on the means rather than the organization.

    • The strategic-constituencies approach focuses on the environment of organizations. Here the aim is to satisfy those who can threaten the organization, these are called the strategic constituencies. Along with this, the stakeholder approach also recognizes those who have political power to influence an organization.

    • It is, however, difficult to identify the strategic constituencies. And the rapid changing environment is difficult to manage to see what is important.

    • The balanced scorecard approach is developed by Kaplan and Norton. It seeks to balance the various demands of an organization. There are 4 perspectives: Financial, Customer, Internal and Innovation and Learning. These must be balanced in this approach.

    • It has some disadvantages: again, the ranking of goals is difficult, furthermore, the utility of the scorecard may be limited and quick change makes it harder to manage.

    Chapter 4

    • The complexity of a company is defined by: horizontal differentiation, vertical differentiation and spatial dispersion. Horizontal differentiation refers to the degree to which an organization is separated into different units on the basis of the tasks performed by organizational members. Job specialization (the division of labour) is the separation of organizational activities into distinct tasks and the assignment of different tasks to different people. More specialization means more complexity.

    • Vertical differentiation is often referred to as the number of layers of management from the lowest level workers to the chief executive officer; it is the depth of the structure of an organization. More layers means more complexity. Span of control defines the number of subordinates that a manager can supervise effectively. Various layers of management are: top management, middle management and lower level management.

    • Spatial dispersion refers to the degree to which the location of an organization’s offices, plant and personnel is dispersed. More spatial dispersion causes more time to communicate.

    • Formalization refers to the degree to which jobs and procedures within the organization are standardized. Usually, the simpler and the more repetitive a job is, the higher the degree of formalization will be. Most common formalization techniques are: selection, role requirements, rules, procedures and policies, socialization, training and rituals.

    • Centralization refers to the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization, normally the top few managers. It is the degree to which the formal authority to make discretionary choice is concentrated in an individual, a unit or a level. Some organization might want to decentralize.

    • Coordination is the process of integrating the objectives and activities of the separate units of an organization in order to achieve organizational goals efficiently. Coordination may be grouped into: programmed coordination, rules and regulations characterizing organizations, planning, goal setting and scheduling. Individual coordination and informal coordination.

    • Henry Mintzberg’s work is the most widely used framework on classifying organizations. He argued that there are five basic parts to any organization. The operating core, strategic apex, middle line and technostructure and support staff.

    • Any one of these five parts can dominate an organization and where each dominates a different organizational form emerges. There are 5 different structures:

      1. Simple structure: low complexity, and little formalization.

      2. Machine bureaucracy: has highly routine operating tasks that are grouped into functional departments, formalized rules and regulations, centralized authority and decision making which follows the chain of command.

      3. Divisional structure: is a set of autonomous self-contained units, each typically configured as a machine bureaucracy. The dominant part of the divisional structure lies with the middle management that reports to, and is overseen by, a head office.

      4. Professional bureaucracy: is a decentralized configuration in which highly trained specialists form the operating core but where the benefits of standardization and decentralization are still achieved. An example of professional bureaucracy is a university, where the majority of key staff has professional expertise.

      5. Adhocracy: is decentralized with lo formalization, low vertical differentiation and high horizontal differentiation.

    Chapter 5

    • Strategy was defined by Chandler as the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals. Strategy and tactics is not the same. Neither are goals and strategy.

    • Strategy is determined by Planning mode or Evolutionary mode. It can be classified by corporate-level strategy or business-level strategy.

    • Chandler issued that organizations with a single-product strategy should have high centralization, low formalization and low complexity. When using a multi-product strategy, divisionalized strategy should be used. A product-diversification strategy could best be done by creating multiple set of independent divisions.

    • Miles and Snow classified organizations into one of four strategic types:

      1. Defenders

      2. Prospectors

      3. Analysers

      4. Reactors

    • Porter proposed that management must select a strategy that will give its organization a competitive advantage. Management can choose from among three strategies:

      • cost-leadership

      • differentiation

      • focus.

    • There is also a stuck in the middle strategy, where an organization does not really choose one.

    • Bartlett and Ghoshal proposed a theory linking global strategy and structure. Bartlett and Ghoshal proposed that companies should use one of the following strategies: international strategy, multidomestic strategy, global strategy or transnational strategy. Closely related to the issue of strategy’s impact on structure is the role of industry as a determinant of structure.

    • Researchers looked two variables that tend to differ by industry category – capital requirements for entry and product-innovation rates. They recognized four categories of industries:

    • Type A industries

    • Type B industries

    • Type C industries

    • Type D industries.

    • Researchers identify a number of different forms of networks and strategic alliances. These are: industrial networks, clusters and strategic alliances.

    Chapter 6

    • Organization size is generally accepted as referring to the total number of employees. Larger size correlates with more vertical differentiation. There are number of problems associated with managing large organizations. These are: growth of bureaucracy, the need to gather and process information and turn it into knowledge, the need to adapt to changing technologies and product life cycles, extended time frames for action, knowing where profits are being made and costs incurred, difficulty in managing over a wide geographic area, bounded rationality, divisionalization, physically separate those areas of the organization which undertake different types of work, outsourcing, finding a balance between what decisions to centralize and decentralize and structuring to facilitate change and ensuring that important tasks have someone responsible for them.

    • Downsizing may be defined as the planned elimination of positions or jobs. Downsizing is often used to describe layoffs arising from technological change. Reasons might be: changes in structure, declining profitability, increased competition or change in strategy.

    Chapter 7

    • Technology refers to the information, equipment, techniques and processes required to transform inputs into outputs in an organization. Joan Woodward's was the first major attempt to view organization structure from a technological perspective. She distinguished 3 types of modes of production technology:

      1. Unit production

      2. Mass production

      3. Process production

    • Charles Perrow defined technology as ‘the action that an individual performs upon an object, with or without the aid of tools or mechanical devices, in order to make some change in that object. Two dimensions of knowledge technology are task variability and problem analysability.

    • The four cells in the matrix of Perrow represent:

      1. Routine technologies

      2. Engineering technologies

      3. Craft technologies

      4. Non-routine technologies.

    • James Thompson proposed three types of technology, each creating a type of interdependence: long-linked technology, mediating technology and intensive technology.

    • Jay Galbraith considered that as task uncertainty increased, so did the amount of information that had to be processed among decision makers in order to achieve the desired level of organizational performance.

    • There are differences between manufacturing and service companies. Service companies typically have simultaneous production and consumption and the customer is part of the production process. Manufacturing companies have boundary spanners, whose main task it is to interact with customers.

    • Information technologies (IT) is a general term covering a number of different categories of information processing. These are:

      • undertaking tasks associated with the day-to-day operations of the organization;

      • technologies that improve communication;

      • control systems;

      • decision support systems;

      • codifying the knowledge base;

      • promoting innovation, and;

      • supporting interorganizational systems.

    • Information efficiencies are cost and time savings that result when IT permits individual employees to become more productive. Information synergies, on the other hand, emerge when two or more individuals or subunits use IT to collaborate across organizational boundaries.

    • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) applies computerization to manufacturing tasks. CIM has helped to achieve economies of scope.

    Chapter 8

    • The environment is usually defined as everything outside an organization’s boundaries. The general environment is essentially the same as an organization’s environment. It includes conditions that may have an impact on the organization, but their relevance is not particularly clear. The specific environment is directly relevant to the organization in achieving its goals.

    • Domain identifies the organization’s niche. Environments differ in what is called environmental uncertainty. The process through which the actual and perceived environments interact in relation to environmental uncertainty has been explained in an interpretation called the enacted environment.

    • Burns and Stalker proposed two structures, namely the mechanic structure and the organic structure.

    • Lawrence and Lorsch looked at two separate dimensions that constituted an organization's internal environment: differentiation and integration. Differentiation seems similar to horizontal differentiation and integration is the quality of collaboration among interdependent units or departments.

    • Duncan classified environments along two dimensions – the rate of change of environments and the environmental complexity. The combination of a stable environment and low complexity leads to low uncertainty for organizations. A stable environment combined with a high level of complexity leads to low to moderate uncertainty. An unstable environment combined with low levels of complexity leads to moderate to high uncertainty. When organizations are both complex and unstable, high uncertainty ensues.

    • Recent research suggests that there are three key dimensions to any organization’s environment: capacity, volatility and complexity. The capacity of an environment refers to the degree to which it can support growth.

    • There are three main theories on the environment – organization relationship. These are:

      1. population ecology

      2. institutional theory

      3. resource-dependence theory

    Chapter 9

    • The power-control view states that an organization’s structure at any given time reflects the interests of those in power who select a structure that will, to the maximum degree possible, maintain and enhance their influence and control and permit them to implement their policies.

    • Child made the strategic choice argument, this meant: while there are limitations on managers’ discretion to make decisions, there is still scope for them to make choices favorable to themselves. Managers have 4 constraints on their decision making;

      • environment,

      • technology

      • strategy

      • size

      • This argument can be condensed into four basic points.

    • Non-rationality is a process of decision making that does not follow the principles of logical deduction and decision optimization. Rational decision making, however, assumes that decision makers focus exclusively on the interests of the organization. However, organizations are composed of groups and individuals with divergent interests.

    • Coalitions are made by individuals who make the organization coalesce into groups with similar interests or values. Although coalitions may form around any number of issues, the dominant coalition is the one that has the power to affect structure.

    • The term power stands for an individual’s capacity to influence decisions. It can be said that: the higher one moves in an organization, the closer one moves to the power core and it is not necessary to have authority to wield power.

    • The research indicates that there are three ways in which people within the organization can acquire power: hierarchical authority, control of resources and network centrality.

    • There are five areas in which structure creates political arenas in organizations:

      1. position in the hierarchy

      2. resource allocation

      3. interdepartmental coordination

      4. responsibility exceeding authority

      5. structural change

    • The most common ways in which power is exercised in a political arena are:

      • Building coalitions

      • Defining the nature of the problem

      • Enhancing legitimacy and expertise

      • Making preferences explicit, but keeping power implicit

      • Expanding network of influence

    • Organizational slack refers to the resources in excess of the minimum required for organisational effectiveness and which provide the capacity for an organization to respond to environmental change without changing the organization.

    • The following can be said about the influence of each contingency discussed:

      • The influence of size is multidimensional

      • The influence of strategy is mostly felt at the top and the middle of the organization,

      • Technology was found to have its greatest impact at the individual and work-group level,

      • Environment has its greatest structural impact upon those in the middle of the organization

      • Power has its greatest structural impact at the top

    Chapter 10

    • The functions of structure are:

      • supporting the implementation of strategy

      • supporting the defining of areas of responsibility

      • providing control mechanism

      • facilitating the flow production

      • promoting coordination and information flows

      • monitoring and responding to environmental change

      • supporting the maintenance of organizational knowledge and learning

    • Major sources of change over the past 25 years are mostly due to government decisions and growth of globalization.

    • Max Weber introduced the term bureaucracy. Seven principles he proposed are:

      1. division of labour;

      2. well-defined authority hierarchy;

      3. high formalization;

      4. impersonal nature;

      5. employment decisions based on merit;

      6. career tracks for employees, and;

      7. distinct separation of members' organizational and personal life.

    • Some advantages are the focus on merit and rules and regulations that promote impartiality. On the other hand, many disadvantages arise, like goal displacement and bureaupathic behaviour, overstaffing, concentration of power and non-member frustration.

    • The major structural innovations in the recent decades are:

      • Focusing management effort on key responsibilities;

      • Rethinking the centralisation-decentralisation balance;

      • Moving focus from internal processes to external adaptation;

      • Greater use of market controls;

      • Improving communication flows;

      • Working back from the customer;

      • Concentrating effort on core competencies, and;

      • Improving availability of information.

    • A virtual organization has the characteristics of a formal organization while not being one. It compromises a complex network of smaller organizations.

    Chapter 11

    • Managers have two general strategies they can adopt in their attempt to lessen environmental uncertainty; internal strategies and external strategies.

      • Internal strategies are:

        • Domain choice: the part of the environment in which the organization operates.

        • Recruitment

        • Environmental scanning: involves investigation of the environment to identify actions by competitors, government, etc. that might influence the organization’s operations. Boundary spanners are staff who act as conduits between the organization and its environment.

        • Buffering: reduces the possibility that the organization’s operations will be disturbed by ensuring that inputs are available to the production process and that there is steady demand on the output side

        • Smoothing: a technique used to level out the impact of fluctuations in the environment

        • Rationing: allocating output according to some priority system

        • Improving organization processing

        • Geographic dispersion

      • External strategies are:

        • Bridging: the process by which managers try to regulate their environment through negotiation, cooperation, exchange of information and other forms of mutual benefit

        • Advertising

        • Contracting: reduces risk by agreeing contracts.

        • Co-opting: absorbing those who threaten the stability of the organization.

        • Coalescing combining with other organizations.

        • Lobbying

        • Insuring

        • Hedging and future markets: against currency shifts.

    Chapter 12

    • The way in which change is managed depends on the type, origin and magnitude of the drivers of change, as not all organizational change is the same. There are two main types of change:

      1. Revolutionary

      2. Evolutionary

    • When the organisation is faced with a change that alters its very nature, the change of this magnitude is called revolutionary change. Disruptive technology is one of the causes of this. Usually the rate of change, in contrast to the magnitude of change, has been such that managers have been able to plan the change program and have had a buffer of time to introduce it.

    • Revolutionary change is often accompanied by: redundancies and downsizing, shifts in power, changes in strategy and a new organisational structure.

    • Evolutionary change describes ongoing minor changes that are incorporated in the existing organisational structure. Most change is evolutionary change.

    • Change can be also classified as planned or unplanned.

      • Planned change refers to situations in which organisations have adequate time to anticipate and formulate a response to the drivers of change.

      • Unplanned change emerges as a response to an unanticipated threat or event.

    • Through combining the two dimensions of change, it is possible to develop a matrix which categorises the various forms of change. Four forms that emerge are:

      • adaptive change

      • systemic change

      • transitory change

      • chaotic change

    • Indicators for a new structure are:

      • Decision making is slow or inappropriate, overcoming this can be done by:

        • improving information flows

        • clarifying ideas

        • hiring people with specific skills

        • removing superfluous people or departments

        • reviewing job responsibilities

      • The organisation is not responding innovatively to environmental change.

      • All important tasks should have someone responsible for them, if it this is not the case, change should be implemented.

    • Change agents are those in power who want to implement a change, and those who want either to replace or to constrain those in power.

    • Large-scale change programs require a comprehensive plan. The change plan identifies the intervention strategies, which fall into one of these categories:

      • people

      • structure

      • technology

      • organisational processes

    • Behaviours can be changed by changing structure, technologies, and processes; one of the aims of changing structure is, in fact, to induce a behavioural change on the part of office holders.

    • Once forces for initiating change have been identified and those responsible have drawn up a change plan, the next phase in the change program is implementation. Most change programs are one-off events or part of an ongoing process of change.

    • There are a number of key factors that determine the degree to which a change will become permanent. The relevant factors are:

      • reward allocation system

      • support of a sponsor

      • transmitting information

      • cultural change

      • commitment

      • degree of diffusion

    • Appropriate tactics for implementing change are critical to success. Research has identified four basic tactics:

      1. intervention

      2. participation

      3. persuasion

      4. edict

    • The intervention tactic is characterised by change agents selling their change rationale to those who will be affected.

    • The participation tactic is characterized by change agents delegating the implementation decision to those who will be affected.

    • The persuasion tactic is characterized by change agents handling change by essentially abdicating the decision to experts.

    • The edict tactic is characterized by top management making the key decisions and using hierarchical authority to implement them.

    • The following actions can be considered to be the most appropriate to take when managing unplanned change:

      • centralisation of management

      • establishment of special task forces

      • active management of the environment

      • management of resources

      • need for active leadership

    Chapter 13

    • Organisational culture refers to a system of shared meaning. The culture of an organisation is expressed in the values and behavioural norms of organisational members. There are two types of values:

      1. Terminal values

      2. Instrumental values

    • Norms are behavioural and attitudinal standards that are taken as accepted for a given group.

    • Culture exists at two levels:

      1. outward manifestations of the culture

      2. deeply held values, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes and feelings that underlie behaviour

    • The following represent the key characteristics where cultures differ:

      • Individual initiative

      • Risk tolerance

      • Direction

      • Integration

      • Management support

      • Control

      • Identity

      • Reward system

      • Conflict tolerance

      • Communication patterns

    • A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organisation’s members. Subcultures tend to develop in large organisations to reflect common problems, situations, technologies or experiences that members face.

    • These subcultures can form vertically or horizontally.

      • A vertical subculture exists when one product division of a divisionalised form has a culture uniquely different from that of other divisions of the organisation.

      • A horizontal subculture exists when a specific set of functional specialists have a set of common understandings.

    • A strong culture is characterised by the organisation’s core values being intensely held, clearly ordered and widely shared. A strong culture promotes behavioural consistency.

    • The successful organisation will achieve a good external fit – its culture will conform to its strategy and environment. Successful organisations will also seek a good internal fit, with their culture properly matched to their technology.

    • The four forces that play the most important part in sustaining a culture are:

      1. the organisation’s selection practices;

      2. the actions of top management;

      3. the organisation’s socialisation methods, and;

      4. the use of appropriate rewards and punishments.

    • In addition to explicit orientation and training programs, culture is transmitted to employees in a number of other forms, such as stories, rituals, material symbols, observation and language.

    • Managing culture means changing the culture. The factors influencing cultural change are:

      • A dramatic crisis - this is the shock that undermines the status quo.

      • A long-term slow decline

      • Leadership turnover

      • Life-cycle stage- As the organisation moves into growth, major changes will be necessary. Decline typically requires cutbacks and other retrenchment strategies

      • Age of the organisation

      • Size of the organisation

      • Strength of the current culture – the stronger the culture, the more difficult it will be to change.

      • Absence of subcultures

    • Techniques available to manage organisational culture are:

      • Applying firm leadership

      • Seeking political support

      • Changing key personnel

      • Implementing structural changes - Structure influences the ways in which people behave in organisations.

      • Avoiding micro-managing the details - It is not possible for senior managers to micro-manage the details of cultural change. Micro-management is concerned with managing the small details of day-to-day processes and events.

      • The need to be patient

      • Applying appropriate management skills

    Chapter 14

    • Growth is more likely to be associated with measures that contribute to an organisation’s survival than with numbers of employees.

    • Larry Greiner studied a number of organisations and from his observations proposed that organisational growth is characterised by periods of steady growth, followed by shorter periods of internal turmoil. The periods of steady growth he called evolution; the periods of internal turmoil he called revolution.

    • The phases in this model are:

      1. creativity

      2. direction

      3. delegation

      4. coordination

      5. collaboration

    • Hanks developed a model of growth for organizations operating in high-technology industries. He defined high-technology industries as those having a higher than average number of technology-oriented workers than for manufacturing industries.

    • Hanks identified four stages of growth for such organizations. These are:

      1. start-up stage

      2. expansion stage

      3. late expansion/early maturity stage

      4. maturity/diversification stage

    • An organisational decline can be seen as a long-lasting and ongoing decrease in the overall activity of the organisation.

    • Downsizing is a reduction in the size of the organisation through the reduction of the number of employees and organisational positions.

    • Environmental causes are those events which occur in the firm’s environment and over which the firm has little control; it must react to them as it sees fit. Some of the environmental causes are: globalisation, mature markets, loss of market share or technological obsolescence.

    • Some of the behavioural factors causing the organizational decline are:

      • self-fulfilling prophecy

      • groupthink

      • management perceptions

      • selective perception

      • rigidity effect

    • The administrative component refers to the number of people in an organisation who engage in support activities.

    • A model of organisational decline, proposed by Weitzel and Johnsson, views decline as consisting of five stages:

      1. blinded decline

      2. inaction

      3. faulty action

      4. crisis

      5. dissolution

    Chapter 15

    • Organisational innovation is a process by which a new and significantly improved good, service, product or practice, which is intended to be useful, is introduced.

    • Invention is thinking of an idea and taking the first steps towards building a prototype or applying the idea in some way. Innovation is the far more complex process of invention combined with development and commercialisation; that is, turning the idea into a marketable product or organisational practice.

    • Organisational knowledge can be defined as the collective knowledge of members of an organisation, which is available for other to access and apply. Organisational learning can be defined as the process of improving organisational action through better knowledge and understanding.

    • The following are the main means by which organizational innovation can be promoted:

      • promotion of a supportive culture

      • implementation of appropriate reward systems

      • tolerance of ideas which are not implemented

      • creation of boundary spanning positions

    • At the core of knowledge management is the idea of drawing upon individual knowledge and turning it into collective knowledge.

    • Nonaka and Takeuchi proposed that there are two categories of knowledge and that knowledge management draws upon the differences between the two. These are:

      1. Tacit knowledge

      2. Explicit knowledge

    • Facilitating knowledge management may be divided into three parts:

      • establishing a supportive culture,

      • introducing an appropriate structure, and

      • making appropriate use of technology.

    • It is possible to identify four different schools of thought through which to approach organizational learning. These are:

      • the economic school (single loop learning);

      • the development school (double loop learning);

      • the managerial school (deutero learning), and;

      • process school.

    • March and Olsen developed a concept of a cycle of organizational learning which integrates individual and organizational learning. The cycle views organizational learning as a system in which the beliefs of individuals affect their behaviour. They identify:

      • role-constrained learning

      • audience learning

      • superstitious learning

      • learning under ambiguity

    Chapter 16

    • Sex is a biological concept, which refers to whether a person is a male or female. Gender is a broader concept which, although including sex, addresses the various actions and roles of men and women in organizations and in society generally.

    • Feminism can be defined as an active advocacy of the claims and aspirations of women. Feminists usually promote the rights and interests of women.

    • Most organizations have transparent management selection and promotion processes, and most senior managers genuinely believe that their organizations are free of discrimination. The term glass ceiling refers to the fact that barriers exist – they are invisible and difficult to identify, but real.

    • Rosabeth Moss Kanter reported a classic study of organizational gender segmentation which identified many of the arguments as to why male management is self-perpetuating.

    • There are four different approaches to gender studies. These are:

      1. Liberal feminist theory,

      2. Radical feminist theory,

      3. Psychoanalytic feminist theory, and

      4. Anti-capitalist feminist theory.

    • The liberal feminist position takes the structure of industry and the organizations in it as given.

    • Radical feminism considers that society, and the organizations in it, have been defined by men.

    • Psychoanalytic feminists look more to the social arrangements associated with the upbringing of children as the means by which men and women experience different psychological development.

    • Social feminism/anti-capitalistic feminism has as its core a belief in the inherently exploitative nature of capitalism. Socialist feminists further link capitalism to patriarchy and male dominance, which conspire to exploit and marginalize women.

    • Methodology in the behavioural sciences may be classified into the two broad categories – quantitative and qualitative.

      • Quantitative techniques are based on measuring some phenomenon or form of behaviour and using statistics to analyse relationships with a sample

      • Qualitative techniques rely on an in-depth analysis and description of behaviour.

  • Printed summary with all chapters can be picked up at the JoHo support center Groningen


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Printed summary of Principles of Microeconomics: European Edition - McDowell et al. - 3rd edition

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Contents: The summary of Principles of Microeconomics: European Edition by McDowell, Bernanke et al. describes the main topics of microeconomics in 15 chapters. Amongst others, the following topics are treated: the relations between markets, specialisation and economic efficiency, Adam Smith's invisible hand theory, the economics of information, and the credit crunch and economic depression.

Form: printed, roughly 45 pages

Language: English

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  • Support: Through your donation you support JoHo and its international projects
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  • Perks & Discounts: As a JoHo member you'll receive discounts on travel equipment, (travel)insurances, TEFL courses, language courses, flight tickets, summaries and more:
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    • Printed summaries: 50% discount
    • Insurances: discounts depend on the insurance
  • Pincards & Pinpoints: As a subscriber you can request 4 Pincards which will give you extra discounts on hardcopy summaries and travel equipment
  • Vacancies & Emigrate abroad: As a JoHo subscriber can use all services for finding a job abroad
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Develop experience, Experience development


Main theme: Global Citizenship

  • Through various promotional, incentive and advisory activities, young people, and nowadays also older people, are made aware of all kinds of possibilities of being abroad and getting involved in development. On the one hand by partner organizations in the Netherlands and abroad, and on the other hand by JoHo support centers in developing countries.
  • Annually, more than 1,000 projects are provided with manpower, funding and other resources through JoHo partners abroad. Because of these projects tens of thousand of children receive education, childcare and teaching materials. Hundreds of disadvantaged young people get the chance to start a study, setup their own business or access free (health) insurances. Hundreds of aid workers are supported when realizing their activities.

JoHo Support Centers

Main themes: Choice Improvement and Sustainable Tourism

  • Through preparation, awareness and advisory activities, backpackers and travelers are encouraged to act fair during their stay abroad. Besides that, they get inspired to use -where possible- organizations that also have proven to be "sustainable" and "world supporting'

  • Meanwhile, more than 1 million travelers and backpackers use the information activities of JoHo through JoHo support centers

Smokey Projects

Main themes: Talent Development & Community Based Tourism

The Smokey Tours

  • Smokey Tours are not just tours. They offer experience, believing that deep experience equals deep insight. The tours are unique and honest; a testimony of changing times and our global interconnectedness. All tours are guided by well-trained local Smokey Tours tour leaders, from underprivileged communities to running eye-opening tours around Metro Manila
  • All tour leaders are part of the JoHo Insurance for Talent Programme which assures them and their families of Health Insurances.
  • Smokey Tours hopes to bring societal change in our communities, either small or on a much bigger scale. It is a huge goal, and they work in small steps. It is not easy, and sometimes things go smoothly, sometimes not at all.

The Smokey Health Center 

  • Providing positive and meaningful impacts on those living in the slums have been the goal since the inception of Smokey Tours. We have distributed relief goods and given qualitative training on health and disaster preparedness that will surely help the slum community cope with the daily challenges that they face. Cooperation and coordination with non-government organizations, people’s organizations and concerned individuals have been vital in successfully addressing these short to medium term social issues as we race to reach our goal.

The Smokey Art & Work Center

  • We believe that mental illness is nothing more than an illness, nothing more, nothing less. That it is not a mental disability if the person affected can function in society provided the illness, like all other illnesses, is properly managed. 
  • In a society that is increasingly becoming insensitive to the plight of people with mental illness, we have taken the cudgels to promote the advocacy of eliminating all shame and stigma and creating a support group for artists with mental illness and their caregivers – Boxless Society.  

The Smokey Library


JoHo World School Bank

Main theme: Knowledge Sharing

  • JoHo World School Bank materials: a multimedia initiative facilitating pupils and students to donate their school materials, extracts and excercises (written in English or Spanish). These materials are made available to pupils and students in developing countries, both online and (partly) in print.

  • Read more


JoHo World Supporter

Main themes: Global Citizenship & Knowledge Sharing

  • A community website for those who actively want to work for a world where everyone, independent of origin, can lead a good life. Anyone can contribute to the community, by creating a profile (resume), and by blogging about activities and experiences that contribute to global citizenship.

  • The main goal of this multimedia platform, for and by "worldsupporters', is to exchange knowledge internationally and to make already invented wheels more available


  • JoHo Worldsupporter Magazine operates as a multimedia initiative with World Supporter blogs, songs, stories, recipies, advice, statements, photos and videos about global citizenship at work, on holiday, at school or in leisure time.



Millennium DO

Main theme: Global Citizenship & Integration

  • "Millennium Do" encourages and facilitates young people to inspire others, through their own global citizenship, to actively contribute as well. Apart from that, Millennium Do stimulates talent development of young people.

  • The program is focused on the millennium development goals and practical ways to achieve these goals.

  • The program ran between 2011-2015, with a preceding similar program (called "JoHo Xplore") between 2005-2009.

  • Initiative in The Netherlands

JoHo World market & travel pawn

Main theme: Collaboration & Sustainable Tourism

  • Worldsupporter Market is a thrift store where used or surplus travel items are offered for sale, via the Web and in JoHo support centers

  • Initiative in The Netherlands

  • Read more


JoHo WorldSupporter is funded out of three sources:

  • contributions of JoHo donors
  • contributions through JoHo activities
  • contributions from sponsorships and grant

Direct effects

  • Already more than 1 million travelers and backpackers used the available information in the JoHo support centers
    or got inspired by the activities of JoHo and JoHo members
  • Already more than 11 million online visitors use the choice advice and other tools for sustainable and fair experiences abroad
  • Since 2002 +/- 20,000 supporters went on the road using JoHo's services. On average they donated 575 euro as a direct contribution to the various projects. Locally one spent an average of 300 euros at local small sized companies. Through the contributions of intermediary organizations an extra 300 euros per person is put into the local economy. On an annual basis, this adds up to more than 2.000,000 euros.
  • Annually, more than 1,000 projects are provided with manpower, funding and other resources through JoHo partners abroad. Because of these projects tens of thousand of children receive education, childcare and teaching materials. Hundreds of disadvantaged young people get the chance to start a study, setup their own business or access free (health) insurances. Hundreds of aid workers are supported when realizing their activities.
  • The "Millennium Do" participants reached with their fundraising for their projects an amount of > 1 million Euro

Indirect effects

  • An average of 50,000 friends and family members are directly involved in JoHo member activities through social media and direct contact.
  • 30% of these friends and relatives plan to become active themselves too, in the Netherlands or abroad.
  • 1% of these friends and relatives actually visit them and spend another 850 euros on average.

Join us: JoHo member- & donorships


Go to the International member- & donorship


Go to Dutch member- & donorship